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 VOL. I. 1567-1635

 The labors and achievements of the navigators and explorers, who visited
 our coasts between the last years of the fifteenth and the early years of
 the seventeenth centuries, were naturally enough not fully appreciated by
 their contemporaries, nor were their relations to the future growth of
 European interests and races on this continent comprehended in the age in
 which they lived. Numberless events in which they were actors, and personal
 characteristics which might have illustrated and enriched their history,
 were therefore never placed upon record. In intimate connection with the
 career of Cabot, Cartier, Roberval, Ribaut, Laudonnière, Gosnold, Pring,
 and Smith, there were vast domains of personal incident and interesting
 fact over which the waves of oblivion have passed forever. Nor has
 Champlain been more fortunate than the rest. In studying his life and
 character, we are constantly finding ourselves longing to know much where
 we are permitted to know but little. His early years, the processes of his
 education, his home virtues, his filial affection and duty, his social and
 domestic habits and mode of life, we know imperfectly; gathering only a few
 rays of light here and there in numerous directions, as we follow him along
 his lengthened career. The reader will therefore fail to find very much
 that he might well desire to know, and that I should have been but too
 happy to embody in this work. In the positive absence of knowledge, this
 want could only be supplied from the field of pure imagination. To draw
 from this source would have been alien both to my judgment and to my taste.
 But the essential and important events of Champlain's public career are
 happily embalmed in imperishable records. To gather these up and weave them
 into an impartial and truthful narrative has been the simple purpose of my
 present attempt. If I have succeeded in marshalling the authentic deeds and
 purposes of his life into a complete whole, giving to each undertaking and
 event its true value and importance, so that the historian may more easily
 comprehend the fulness of that life which Champlain consecrated to the
 progress of geographical knowledge, to the aggrandizement of France, and to
 the dissemination of the Christian faith in the church of which he was a
 member, I shall feel that my aim has been fully achieved.
 The annotations which accompany Dr. Otis's faithful and scholarly
 translation are intended to give to the reader such information as he may
 need for a full understanding of the text, and which he could not otherwise
 obtain without the inconvenience of troublesome, and, in many instances, of
 difficult and perplexing investigations. The sources of my information are
 so fully given in connection with the notes that no further reference to
 them in this place is required.
 In the progress of the work, I have found myself under great obligations to
 numerous friends for the loan of rare books, and for valuable suggestions
 and assistance. The readiness with which historical scholars and the
 custodians of our great depositories of learning have responded to my
 inquiries, and the cordiality and courtesy with which they have uniformly
 proffered their assistance, have awakened my deepest gratitude. I take this
 opportunity to tender my cordial thanks to those who have thus obliged and
 aided me. And, while I cannot spread the names of all upon these pages, I
 hasten to mention, first of all, my friend, Dr. Otis, with whom I have been
 so closely associated, and whose courteous manner and kindly suggestions
 have rendered my task always an agreeable one. I desire, likewise, to
 mention Mr. George Lamb, of Boston, who has gratuitously executed and
 contributed a map, illustrating the explorations of Champlain; Mr. Justin
 Winsor, of the Library of Harvard College; Mr. Charles A. Cutter, of the
 Boston Athenaeum; Mr. John Ward Dean, of the Library of the New England
 Historic Genealogical Society; Mrs. John Carter Brown, of Providence,
 R. I.; Miss S. E. Dorr, of Boston; Monsieur L. Delisle, Directeur Général
 de la Bibliothèque Nationale, of Paris; M. Meschinet De Richemond,
 Archiviste de la Charente Inférieure, La Rochelle, France; the Hon. Charles
 H. Bell, of Exeter, N. H.; Francis Parkman, LL.D., of Boston; the Abbé H.
 R. Casgrain, of Rivière Ouelle, Canada; John G. Shea, LL.D., of New York;
 Mr. James M. LeMoine, of Quebec; and Mr. George Prince, of Bath, Maine.
 I take this occasion to state for the information of the members of the
 Prince Society, that some important facts contained in the Memoir had not
 been received when the text and notes of the second volume were ready for
 the press, and, to prevent any delay in the completion of the whole work,
 Vol. II. was issued before Vol. I., as will appear by the dates on their
 respective title-pages.
 E. F. S.
 BOSTON, 14 ARLINGTON STREET, November 10, 1880.
     MONCORNET BY E. RONJAT, _heliotype_.
   CARTE DE LA NOVVELLE FRANCE, 1632, _heliotype_.
 Champlain was descended from an ancestry whose names are not recorded among
 the renowned families of France. He was the son of Antoine de Champlain, a
 captain in the marine, and his wife Marguerite LeRoy. They lived in the
 little village of Brouage, in the ancient province of Saintonge. Of their
 son Samuel, no contemporaneous record is known to exist indicating either
 the day or year of his birth. The period at which we find him engaged in
 active and responsible duties, such as are usually assigned to mature
 manhood, leads to the conjecture that he was born about the year 1567. Of
 his youth little is known. The forces that contributed to the formation of
 his character are mostly to be inferred from the abode of his early years,
 the occupations of those by whom he was surrounded, and the temper and
 spirit of the times in which he lived.
 Brouage is situated in a low, marshy region, on the southern bank of an
 inlet or arm of the sea, on the southwestern shores of France, opposite to
 that part of the Island of Oleron where it is separated from the mainland
 only by a narrow channel. Although this little town can boast a great
 antiquity, it never at any time had a large population. It is mentioned by
 local historians as early as the middle of the eleventh century. It was a
 seigniory of the family of Pons. The village was founded by Jacques de
 Pons, after whose proper name it was for a time called Jacopolis, but soon
 resumed its ancient appellation of Brouage.
 An old chronicler of the sixteenth century informs us that in his time it
 was a port of great importance, and the theatre of a large foreign
 commerce. Its harbor, capable of receiving large ships, was excellent,
 regarded, indeed, as the finest in the kingdom of France. [1] It was a
 favorite idea of Charles VIII. to have at all times several war-ships in
 this harbor, ready against any sudden invasion of this part of the coast.
 At the period of Champlain's boyhood, the village of Brouage had two
 absorbing interests. First, it had then recently become a military post of
 importance; and second, it was the centre of a large manufacture of salt.
 To these two interests, the whole population gave their thoughts, their
 energy, and their enterprise.
 In the reign of Charles IX., a short time before or perhaps a little after
 the birth of Champlain, the town was fortified, and distinguished Italian
 engineers were employed to design and execute the work. [2] To prevent a
 sudden attack, it was surrounded by a capacious moat. At the four angles
 formed by the moat were elevated structures of earth and wood planted upon
 piles, with bastions and projecting angles, and the usual devices of
 military architecture for the attainment of strength and facility of
 defence. [3]
 During the civil wars, stretching over nearly forty years of the last half
 of the sixteenth century, with only brief and fitful periods of peace, this
 little fortified town was a post ardently coveted by both of the contending
 parties. Situated on the same coast, and only a few miles from Rochelle,
 the stronghold of the Huguenots, it was obviously exceedingly important to
 them that it should be in their possession, both as the key to the commerce
 of the surrounding country and from the very great annoyance which an enemy
 holding it could offer to them in numberless ways. Notwithstanding its
 strong defences, it was nevertheless taken and retaken several times during
 the struggles of that period. It was surrendered to the Huguenots in 1570,
 but was immediately restored on the peace that presently followed. The king
 of Navarre [4] took it by strategy in 1576, placed a strong garrison in it,
 repaired and strengthened its fortifications; but the next year it was
 forced to surrender to the royal army commanded by the duke of Mayenne. [5]
 In 1585, the Huguenots made another attempt to gain possession of the town.
 The Prince of Condé encamped with a strong force on the road leading to
 Marennes, the only avenue to Brouage by land, while the inhabitants of
 Rochelle co-operated by sending down a fleet which completely blocked up
 the harbor. [6] While the siege was in successful progress, the prince
 unwisely drew off a part of his command for the relief of the castle of
 Angiers; [7] and a month later the siege was abandoned and the Huguenot
 forces were badly cut to pieces by de Saint Luc, [8] the military governor
 of Brouage, who pursued them in their retreat.
 The next year, 1586, the town was again threatened by the Prince of Condé,
 who, having collected another army, was met by De Saint Luc near the island
 of Oleron, who sallied forth from Brouage with a strong force; and a
 conflict ensued, lasting the whole day, with equal loss on both sides, but
 with no decisive results.
 Thus until 1589, when the King of Navarre, the leader of the Huguenots,
 entered into a truce with Henry III., from Champlain's birth through the
 whole period of his youth and until he entered upon his manhood, the little
 town within whose walls he was reared was the fitful scene of war and
 peace, of alarm and conflict.
 But in the intervals, when the waves of civil strife settled into the calm
 of a temporary peace, the citizens returned with alacrity to their usual
 employment, the manufacture of salt, which was the absorbing article of
 commerce in their port.
 This manufacture was carried on more extensively in Saintonge than in any
 other part of France. The salt was obtained by subjecting water drawn from
 the ocean to solar evaporation. The low marsh-lands which were very
 extensive about Brouage, on the south towards Marennes and on the north
 towards Rochefort, were eminently adapted to this purpose. The whole of
 this vast region was cut up into salt basins, generally in the form of
 parallelograms, excavated at different depths, the earth and rubbish
 scooped out and thrown on the sides, forming a platform or path leading
 from basin to basin, the whole presenting to the eye the appearance of a
 vast chess-board. The argillaceous earth at the bottom of the pans was made
 hard to prevent the escape of the water by percolation. This was done in
 the larger ones by leading horses over the surface, until, says an old
 chronicler, the basins "would hold water as if they were brass." The water
 was introduced from the sea, through sluices and sieves of pierced planks,
 passing over broad surfaces in shallow currents, furnishing an opportunity
 for evaporation from the moment it left the ocean until it found its way
 into the numerous salt-basins covering the whole expanse of the marshy
 plains. The water once in the basins, the process of evaporation was
 carried on by the sun and the wind, assisted by the workmen, who agitated
 the water to hasten the process. The first formation of salt was on the
 surface, having a white, creamy appearance, exhaling an agreeable perfume,
 resembling that of violets. This was the finest and most delicate salt,
 while that precipitated, or falling to the bottom of the basin, was of a
 darker hue.
 When the crystallization was completed, the salt was gathered up, drained,
 and piled in conical heaps on the platforms or paths along the sides of the
 basins. At the height of the season, which began in May and ended in
 September, when the whole marsh region was covered with countless white
 cones of salt, it presented an interesting picture, not unlike the tented
 camp of a vast army.
 The salt was carried from the marshes on pack-horses, equipped each with a
 white canvas bag, led by boys either to the quay, where large vessels were
 lying, or to small barques which could be brought at high tide, by natural
 or artificial inlets, into the very heart of the marsh-fields.
 When the period for removing the salt came, no time was to be lost, as a
 sudden fall of rain might destroy in an hour the products of a month. A
 small quantity only could be transported at a time, and consequently great
 numbers of animals were employed, which were made to hasten over the
 sinuous and angulated paths at their highest speed. On reaching the ships,
 the burden was taken by men stationed for the purpose, the boys mounted in
 haste, and galloped back for another.
 The scene presented in the labyrinth of an extensive salt-marsh was lively
 and entertaining. The picturesque dress of the workmen, with their clean
 white frocks and linen tights; the horses in great numbers mantled in their
 showy salt-bags, winding their way on the narrow platforms, moving in all
 directions, turning now to the right hand and now to the left, doubling
 almost numberless angles, here advancing and again retreating, often going
 two leagues to make the distance of one, maintaining order in apparent
 confusion, altogether presented to the distant observer the aspect of a
 grand equestrian masquerade.
 The extent of the works and the labor and capital invested in them were
 doubtless large for that period. A contemporary of Champlain informs us
 that the wood employed in the construction of the works, in the form of
 gigantic sluices, bridges, beam-partitions, and sieves, was so vast in
 quantity that, if it were destroyed, the forests of Guienne would not
 suffice to replace it. He also adds that no one who had seen the salt works
 of Saintonge would estimate the expense of forming them less than that of
 building the city of Paris itself.
 The port of Brouage was the busy mart from which the salt of Saintonge was
 distributed not only along the coast of France, but in London and Antwerp,
 and we know not what other markets on the continent of Europe. [9]
 The early years of Champlain were of necessity intimately associated with
 the stirring scenes thus presented in this prosperous little seaport. As we
 know that he was a careful observer, endowed by nature with an active
 temperament and an unusual degree of practical sense we are sure that no
 event escaped his attention, and that no mystery was permitted to go
 unsolved. The military and commercial enterprise of the place brought him
 into daily contact with men of the highest character in their departments.
 The salt-factors of Brouage were persons of experience and activity, who
 knew their business, its methods, and the markets at home and abroad. The
 fortress was commanded by distinguished officers of the French army, and
 was a rendezvous of the young nobility; like other similar places, a
 training-school for military command. In this association, whether near or
 remote, young Champlain, with his eagle eye and quick ear, was receiving
 lessons and influences which were daily shaping his unfolding capacities,
 and gradually compacting and crystallizing them into the firmness and
 strength of character which he so largely displayed in after years. His
 education, such as it was, was of course obtained during this period. He
 has himself given us no intimation of its character or extent. A careful
 examination of his numerous writings will, however, render it obvious that
 it was limited and rudimentary, scarcely extending beyond the fundamental
 branches which were then regarded as necessary in the ordinary transactions
 of business. As the result of instruction or association with educated men,
 he attained to a good general knowledge of the French language, but was
 never nicely accurate or eminently skilful in its use. He evidently gave
 some attention in his early years to the study and practice of drawing.
 While the specimens of his work that have come down to us are marked by
 grave defects, he appears nevertheless to have acquired facility and some
 skill in the art, which he made exceedingly useful in the illustration of
 his discoveries in the new world.
 During Champlain's youth and the earlier years of his manhood, he appears
 to have been engaged in practical navigation. In his address to the Queen
 [10] he says, "this is the art which in my early years won my love, and has
 induced me to expose myself almost all my life to the impetuous waves of
 the ocean." That he began the practice of navigation at an early period may
 likewise be inferred from the fact that in 1599 he was put in command of a
 large French ship of 500 tons, which had been chartered by the Spanish
 authorities for a voyage to the West Indies, of which we shall speak more
 particularly in the sequel. It is obvious that he could not have been
 intrusted with a command so difficult and of so great responsibility
 without practical experience in navigation; and, as it will appear
 hereafter that he was in the army several years during the civil war,
 probably from 1592 to 1598, his experience in navigation must have been
 obtained anterior to that, in the years of his youth and early manhood.
 Brouage offered an excellent opportunity for such an employment. Its port
 was open to the commerce of foreign nations, and a large number of vessels,
 as we have already seen, was employed in the yearly distribution of the
 salt of Saintonge, not only in the seaport towns of France, but in England
 and on the Continent. In these coasting expeditions, Champlain was
 acquiring skill in navigation which was to be of very great service to him
 in his future career, and likewise gathering up rich stores of experience,
 coming in contact with a great variety of men, observing their manners and
 customs, and quickening and strengthening his natural taste for travel and
 adventure. It is not unlikely that he was, at least during some of these
 years, employed in the national marine, which was fully employed in
 guarding the coast against foreign invasion, and in restraining the power
 of the Huguenots, who were firmly seated at Rochelle with a sufficient
 naval force to give annoyance to their enemies along the whole western
 coast of France.
 In 1592, or soon after that date, Champlain was appointed quarter-master in
 the royal army in Brittany, discharging the office several years, until, by
 the peace of Vervins, in 1598, the authority of Henry IV. was firmly
 established throughout the kingdom. This war in Brittany constituted the
 closing scene of that mighty struggle which had been agitating the nation,
 wasting its resources and its best blood for more than half a century. It
 began in its incipient stages as far back as a decade following 1530, when
 the preaching of Calvin in the Kingdom of Navarre began to make known his
 transcendent power. The new faith, which was making rapid strides in other
 countries, easily awakened the warm heart and active temperament of the
 French. The principle of private judgment which lies at the foundation of
 Protestant teaching, its spontaneity as opposed to a faith imposed by
 authority, commended it especially to the learned and thoughtful, while the
 same principle awakened the quick and impulsive nature of the masses. The
 effort to put down the movement by the extermination of those engaged in
 it, proved not only unsuccessful, but recoiled, as usual in such cases,
 upon the hand that struck the blow. Confiscations, imprisonments, and the
 stake daily increased the number of those which these severe measures were
 intended to diminish. It was impossible to mark its progress. When at
 intervals all was calm and placid on the surface, at the same time, down
 beneath, where the eye of the detective could not penetrate, in the closet
 of the scholar and at the fireside of the artisan and the peasant, the new
 gospel, silently and without observation, was spreading like an
 all-pervading leaven. [11]
 In 1562, the repressed forces of the Huguenots could no longer be
 restrained, and, bursting forth, assumed the form of organized civil war.
 With the exception of temporary lulls, originating in policy or exhaustion,
 there was no cessation of arms until 1598. Although it is usually and
 perhaps best described as a religious war, the struggle was not altogether
 between the Catholic and the Huguenot or Protestant. There were many other
 elements that came in to give their coloring to the contest, and especially
 to determine the course and policy of individuals.
 The ultra-Catholic desired to maintain the old faith with all its ancient
 prestige and power, and to crush out and exclude every other. With this
 party were found the court, certain ambitious and powerful families, and
 nearly all the officials of the church. In close alliance with it were the
 Roman Pontiff, the King of Spain, and the Catholic princes of Germany.
 The Huguenots desired what is commonly known as liberty of conscience;
 or, in other words, freedom to worship God according to their own views
 of the truth, without interference or restriction. And in close alliance
 with them were the Queen of England and the Protestant princes of
 Personal motives, irrespective of principle, united many persons and
 families with either of these great parties which seemed most likely to
 subserve their private ambitions. The feudal system was nearly extinct in
 form, but its spirit was still alive. The nobles who had long held sway in
 some of the provinces of France desired to hold them as distinct and
 separate governments, and to transmit them as an inheritance to their
 children. This motive often determined their political association.
 During the most of the period of this long civil war, Catherine de Médicis
 [12] was either regent or in the exercise of a controlling influence in the
 government of France. She was a woman of commanding person and
 extraordinary ability, skilful in intrigue, without conscience and without
 personal religion. She hesitated at no crime, however black, if through it
 she could attain the objects of her ambition. Neither of her three sons,
 Francis, Charles, and Henry, who came successively to the throne, left any
 legal heir to succeed him. The succession became, therefore, at an early
 period, a question of great interest. If not the potent cause, it was
 nevertheless intimately connected with most of the bloodshed of that bloody
 A solemn league was entered into by a large number of the ultra-Catholic
 nobles to secure two avowed objects, the succession of a Catholic prince to
 the throne, and the utter extermination of the Huguenots. Henry, King of
 Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, admitted to be the legal heir to
 the throne, was a Protestant, and therefore by the decree of the League
 disqualified to succeed. Around his standard, the Huguenots rallied in
 great numbers. With him were associated the princes of Condé, of royal
 blood, and many other distinguished nobles. They contended for the double
 purpose of securing the throne to its rightful heir and of emancipating and
 establishing the Protestant faith.
 But there was another class, acting indeed with one or the other of these
 two great parties, nevertheless influenced by very different motives. It
 was composed of moderate Catholics, who cared little for the political
 schemes and civil power of the Roman Pontiff, who dreaded the encroachments
 of the King of Spain, who were firmly patriotic and desired the
 aggrandizement and glory of France.
 The ultra-Catholic party was, for a long period, by far the most numerous
 and the more powerful; but the Huguenots were sufficiently strong to keep
 up the struggle with varying success for nearly forty years.
 After the alliance of Henry of Navarre with Henry III. against the League,
 the moderate Catholics and the Huguenots were united and fought together
 under the royal standard until the close of the war in 1598.
 Champlain was personally engaged in the war in Brittany for several years.
 This province on the western coast of France, constituting a tongue of land
 jutting out as it were into the sea, isolated and remote from the great
 centres of the war, was among the last to surrender to the arms of Henry
 IV. The Huguenots had made but little progress within its borders. The Duke
 de Mercoeur [13] had been its governor for sixteen years, and had bent all
 his energies to separate it from France, organize it into a distinct
 kingdom, and transmit its sceptre to his own family.
 Champlain informs us that he was quarter-master in the army of the king
 under Marshal d'Aumont, de Saint Luc, and Marshal de Brissac, distinguished
 officers of the French army, who had been successively in command in that
 province for the purpose of reducing it into obedience to Henry IV.
 Marshal d'Aumont [14] took command of the army in Brittany in 1592. He was
 then seventy years of age, an able and patriotic officer, a moderate
 Catholic, and an uncompromising foe of the League. He had expressed his
 sympathy for Henry IV. a long time before the death of Henry III., and when
 that event occurred he immediately espoused the cause of the new monarch,
 and was at once appointed to the command of one of the three great
 divisions of the French army. He received a wound at the siege of the
 Château de Camper, in Brittany, of which he died on the 19th of August,
 De Saint Luc, already in the service in Brittany, as lieutenant-general
 under D'Aumont, continued, after the death of that officer, in sole
 command. [15] He raised the siege of the Château de Camper after the death
 of his superior, and proceeded to capture several other posts, marching
 through the lower part of the province, repressing the license of the
 soldiery, and introducing order and discipline. On the 5th of September,
 1596, he was appointed grand-master of the artillery of France, which
 terminated his special service in Brittany.
 The king immediately appointed in his place Marshal de Brissac, [16] an
 officer of broad experience, who added other great qualities to those of an
 able soldier. No distinguished battles signalized the remaining months of
 the civil war in this province. The exhausted resources and faltering
 courage of the people could no longer be sustained by the flatteries or
 promises of the Duke de Mercoeur. Wherever the squadrons of the marshal
 made their appearance the flag of truce was raised, and town, city, and
 fortress vied with each other in their haste to bring their ensigns and lay
 them at his feet.
 On the seventh of June, 1598, the peace of Vervins was published in Paris,
 and the kingdom of France was a unit, with the general satisfaction of all
 parties, under the able, wise, and catholic sovereign, Henry the Fourth.
 1. The following from Marshal de Montluc refers to Brouage in 1568.
    Speaking of the Huguenots he says:--"Or ils n'en pouvoient choisir un
    plus à leur advantage, que celui de la Rochelle, duquel dépend celui de
    Brouage, qui est le plus beau port de mer de la France." _Commentaires_,
    Paris, 1760, Tom. III., p. 340.
 2. "La Riviere Puitaillé qui en étoit Gouverneur, fut chargé de faire
    travailler aux fortifications. Belarmat, Bephano, Castritio d'Urbin, &
    le Cavalier Orlogio, tous Ingénieurs Italiens, présiderent aux
    travaux."--_Histoire La Rochelle_, par Arcere, à la Rochelle, 1756, Tom.
    I., p. 121.
 3. _Histioire de la Saintonge et de l'Aunis_, 1152-1548, par M. D. Massion,
    Paris. 1838, Vol. II., p. 406.
 4. The King of Navarre "sent for Monsieur _de Mirabeau_ under colour of
    treating with him concerning other businesses, and forced him to deliver
    up Brouage into his hands, a Fort of great importance, as well for that
    it lies upon the Coast of the Ocean-sea, as because it abounds with such
    store of salt-pits, which yeeld a great and constant revenue; he made
    the Sieur de Montaut Governour, and put into it a strong Garrison of his
    dependents, furnishing it with ammunition, and fortifying it with
    exceeding diligence."--_His. Civ. Warres of France_, by Henrico Caterino
    Davila, London, 1647, p. 455.
 5. "The Duke of Mayenne, having without difficulty taken Thone-Charente,
    and Marans, had laid siege to Brouage, a place, for situation, strength,
    and the profit of the salt-pits, of very great importance; when the
    Prince of Condé, having tryed all possible means to relieve the
    besieged, the Hugonots after some difficulty were brought into such a
    condition, that about the end of August they delivered it up, saving
    only the lives of the Souldiers and inhabitants, which agreement the
    Duke punctually observed."--_His. Civ. Warres_, by Davila, London, 1647,
    p. 472. See also _Memoirs of Sully_, Phila., 1817, Vol. I., p. 69.
    "_Le Jeudi_ XXVIII _Mars_. Fut tenu Conseil au Cabinet de la Royne mère
    du Roy [pour] aviser ce que M. du _Maine_ avoit à faire, & j'ai mis en
    avant l'enterprise de _Brouage_."--_Journal de Henri III_., Paris, 1744,
    Tom. III., p. 220.
 6. "The Prince of Condé resolved to besiege Brouage, wherein was the Sieur
    _de St. Luc_, one of the League, with no contemptible number of infantry
    and some other gentlemen of the Country. The Rochellers consented to
    this Enterprise, both for their profit, and reputation which redounded
    by it; and having sent a great many Ships thither, besieged the Fortress
    by Sea, whilst the Prince having possessed that passage which is the
    only way to Brouage by land, and having shut up the Defendants within
    the circuit of their walls, straightned the Siege very closely on that
    side."--_Davila_, p. 582. See also, _Histoire de Thou_, à Londres, 1734,
    Tom. IX., p. 383.
    The blocking up the harbor at this time appears to have been more
    effective than convenient. Twenty boats or rafts filled with earth and
    stone were sunk with a purpose of destroying the harbor. De Saint Luc,
    the governor, succeeded in removing only four or five. The entrance for
    vessels afterward remained difficult except at high tide. Subsequently
    Cardinal de Richelieu expended a hundred thousand francs to remove the
    rest, but did not succeed in removing one of them.--_Vide Histoire de La
    Rochelle_, par Arcere, Tom I. p. 121.
 7. The Prince of Condé. "Leaving Monsieur de St. Mesmes with the Infantry
    and Artillery at the Siege of Brouage, and giving order that the Fleet
    should continue to block it up by sea, he departed upon the eight of
    October to relieve the Castle of Angiers with 800 Gentlemen and 1400
    Harquebuziers on horseback."--_Davila_, p. 583. See also _Memoirs of
    Sully_, Phila., 1817, Vol. I., p 123; _Histoire de Thou_, à Londres,
    1734, Tom. IX, p. 385.
 8. "_St. Luc_ sallying out of Brouage, and following those that were
    scattered severall wayes, made a great slaughter of them in many places;
    whereupon the Commander, despairing to rally the Army any more, got away
    as well as they could possibly, to secure their own strong holds."--
    _His. Civ. Warres of France_, by Henrico Caterino Davila, London, 1647,
    p 588.
 9. An old writer gives us some idea of the vast quantities of salt exported
    from France by the amount sent to a single country.
    "Important denique sexies mille vel circiter centenarios salis, quorum
    singuli constant centenis modiis, ducentenas ut minimum & vicenas
    quinas, vel & tricenas, pro salis ipsius candore puritateque, libras
    pondo pendentibus, sena igitur libras centenariorum millia, computatis
    in singulos aureis nummis tricenis, centum & octoginta reserunt aureorum
    millia."--_Belguae Descrtptio_, a Lud. Gvicciardino, Amstelodami, 1652,
    p. 244.
    TRANSLATION.--They import in fine 6000 centenarii of salt, each one of
    which contains 100 bushels, weighing at least 225 or 230 pounds,
    according to the purity and whiteness of the salt; therefore six
    thousand centenarii, computing each at thirty golden nummi, amount to
    180,000 aurei.
    It may not be easy to determine the value of this importation in money,
    since the value of gold is constantly changing, but the quantity
    imported may be readily determined, which was according to the above
    statement, 67,500 tons.
    A treaty of April 30, 1527, between Francis I. of France and Henry VIII.
    of England, provided as follows:--"And, besides, should furnish unto the
    said _Henry_, as long as hee lived, yearly, of the Salt of _Brouage_,
    the value of fifteene thousand Crownes."--_Life and Raigne of Henry
    VIII._, by Lord Herbert of Cherbury, London, 1649, p. 206.
    Saintonge continued for a long time to be the source of large exports of
    salt. De Witt, writing about the year 1658, says they received in
    Holland of "salt, yearly, the lading of 500 or 600 ships, exported from
    Rochel, Maran, Brouage, the Island of Oleron, and Ree."--_Republick of
    Holland_, by John De Witt, London, 1702, p. 271. But it no longer holds
    the pre-eminence which it did three centuries ago. Saintonge long since
    yielded the palm to Brittany.
 10. Vide _Oeuvres de Champlain_, Quebec ed, Tom. III. p. v.
 11. In 1558, it was estimated that there were already 400,000 persons in
     France who were declared adherents of the Reformation.--_Ranke's Civil
     Wars in France_, Vol. I., p. 234.
     "Although our assemblies were most frequently held in the depth of
     midnight, and our enemies very often heard us passing through the
     street, yet so it was, that God bridled them in such manner that we
     were preserved under His protection."--_Bernard Palissy_, 1580. Vide
     _Morlay's Life of Palissy_, Vol. II., p. 274.
     When Henry IV. besieged Paris, its population was more than 200,000.--
 12. "Catherine de Médicis was of a large and, at the same time, firm and
     powerful figure, her countenance had an olive tint, and her prominent
     eyes and curled lip reminded the spectator of her great uncle, Leo X"
     --_Civil Wars in France_, by Leopold Ranke, London, 1852, p 28.
 13. Philippe Emanuel de Lorraine, Duc de Mercoeur, born at Nomény,
     September 9, 1558, was the son of Nicolas, Count de Vaudemont, by his
     second wife, Jeanne de Savoy, and was half-brother of Queen Louise, the
     wife of Henry III. He was made governor of Brittany in 1582. He
     embraced the party of the League before the death of Henry III.,
     entered into an alliance with Philip II., and gave the Spaniards
     possession of the port of Blavet in 1591. He made his submission to
     Henry IV. in 1598, on which occasion his only daughter Françoise,
     probably the richest heiress in the kingdom, was contracted in marriage
     to César, Duc de Vendôme, the illegitimate son of Henry IV. by
     Gabrielle d'Estrées, the Duchess de Beaufort. The Duc de Mercoeur died
     at Nuremburg, February 19, 1602.--_Vide Birch's Memoirs of Queen
     Elizabeth_, Vol. I., p. 82; _Davila's His. Civil Warres of France_, p.
 14. Jean d'Aumont, born in 1522, a Marshal of France who served under
     six kings, Francis I., Henry II., Francis II., Charles IX., Henry
     III., and Henry IV. He distinguished himself at the battles of
     Dreux, Saint-Denis, Montcontour, and in the famous siege of
     Rochelle in 1573. After the death of Henry III., he was the first
     to recognize Henry IV., whom he served with the same zeal as he
     had his five predecessors He took part in the brilliant battle of
     Arques in 1589. In the following year, he so distinguished himself
     at Ivry that Henry IV., inviting him to sup with him after this
     memorable battle, addressed to him these flattering words, "Il est
     juste que vous soyez du festin, après m'avoir si bien servi à mes
     noces." At the siege of the Château de Camper, in Upper Brittany,
     he received a musket shot which fractured his arm, and died of the
     wound on the 19th of August, 1595, at the age of seventy-three
     years. "Ce grand capitaine qui avoit si bien mérité du Roi et de
     la nation, emporta dans le tombeau les regrets des Officiers & des
     soldats, qui pleurerent amérement la perte de leur Général. La
     Bretagne qui le regardoit comme son père, le Roi, tout le Royaume
     enfin, furent extrêmement touchez de sa mort. Malgré la haine
     mutuelle des factions qui divisoient la France, il étoit si estimé
     dans les deux partis, que s'il se fût agi de trouver un chevalier
     François sans reproche, tel que nos peres en ont autrefois eu,
     tout le monde auroit jette les yeux sur d'Aumont."--_Histoire
     Universelle de Jacque-Auguste de Thou_, à Londres, 1734,
     Tom. XII., p. 446--_Vide_ also, _Larousse; Camden's His.  Queen
     Elizabeth_, London, 1675 pp 486,487, _Memoirs of Sully_,
     Philadelphia, 1817, pp. 122, 210; _Oeuvres de Brantôme_, Tom. IV.,
     pp.  46-49; _Histoire de Bretagne_, par M. Daru, Paris, 1826,
     Vol. III. p.  319; _Freer's His. Henry IV._, Vol. II, p. 70.
 15. François d'Espinay de Saint-Luc, sometimes called _Le Brave Saint
     Luc_, was born in 1554, and was killed at the battle of Amiens on
     the 8th of September, 1597. He was early appointed governor of
     Saintonge, and of the Fortress of Brouage, which he successfully
     defended in 1585 against the attack of the King of Navarre and the
     Prince de Condé. He assisted at the battle of Coutras in 1587. He
     served as a lieutenant-general in Brittany from 1592 to 1596. In
     1594, he planned with Brissac, his brother-in-law, then governor
     of Paris for the League, for the surrender of Paris to Henry
     IV. For this he was offered the baton of a Marshal of France by
     the king, which he modestly declined, and begged that it might be
     given to Brissac. In 1578, through the influence or authority of
     Henry III., he married the heiress, Jeanne de Cosse-Brissac,
     sister of Charles de Cosse-Brissac, _postea_, a lady of no
     personal attractions, but of excellent understanding and
     character.  --_Vide Courcelle's Histoire Généalogique des Pairs de
     France_, Vol.  II.; _Birch's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth_, Vol. I.,
     pp. 163, 191; _Freer's Henry III._, p. 162; _De Mezeray's
     His. France_, 1683, p. 861.
 16. Charles de Cosse-Brissac, a Marshal of France and governor of Angiers.
     He was a member of the League as early as 1585. He conceived the idea
     of making France a republic after the model of ancient Rome. He laid
     his views before the chief Leaguers but none of them approved his plan.
     He delivered up Paris, of which he was governor, to Henry IV. in 1594,
     for which he received the Marshal's baton. He died in 1621, at the
     siege of Saint Jean d'Angely.--_Vide Davila_, pp. 538, 584, 585;
     _Sully_, Philadelphia, 1817, V. 61. Vol. I., p. 420; _Brantôme_, Vol.
     III., p. 84; _His. Collections_, London, 1598, p. 35; _De Thou_, à
     Londres, 1724, Tome XII., p. 449.
 17. "By the Articles of this Treaty the king was to restore the County of
     _Charolois_ to the king of _Spain_, to be by him held of the Crown of
     _France_; who in exchange restor'd the towns of _Calice, Ardres,
     Montbulin, Dourlens, la Capelle_, and _le Catelet_ in _Picardy_, and
     _Blavet_ in Britanny: which Articles were Ratifi'd and Sign'd by his
     Majesty the eleventh of June [1598]; who in his gayety of humour, at so
     happy a conclusion, told the Duke of _Espernon, That with one dash of
     his Pen he had done greater things, than he could of a long time have
     perform'd with the best Swords of his Kingdom."--Life of the Duke of
     Espernon_, London, 1670, p. 203; _Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand_, par
     Préfixe, Paris, 1681, p. 243.
 The service of Champlain as quarter-master in the war in Brittany commenced
 probably with the appointment of Marshal d'Aumont to the command of the
 army in 1592, and, if we are right in this conjecture, it covered a period
 of not far from six years. The activity of the army, and the difficulty of
 obtaining supplies in the general destitution of the province, imposed upon
 him constant and perplexing duty. But in the midst of his embarrassments he
 was gathering up valuable experience, not only relating to the conduct of
 war, but to the transactions of business under a great variety of forms. He
 was brought into close and intimate relations with men of character,
 standing, and influence. The knowledge, discipline, and self-control of
 which he was daily becoming master were unconsciously fitting him for a
 career, humble though it might seem in its several stages, but nevertheless
 noble and potent in its relations to other generations.
 At the close of the war, the army which it had called into existence
 was disbanded, the soldiers departed to their homes, the office of
 quarter-master was of necessity vacated, and Champlain was left
 without employment.
 Casting about for some new occupation, following his instinctive love of
 travel and adventure, he conceived the idea of attempting an exploration of
 the Spanish West Indies, with the purpose of bringing back a report that
 should be useful to France. But this was an enterprise not easy either to
 inaugurate or carry out. The colonial establishments of Spain were at that
 time hermetically sealed against all intercourse with foreign nations.
 Armed ships, like watch-dogs, were ever on the alert, and foreign
 merchantmen entered their ports only at the peril of confiscation. It was
 necessary for Spain to send out annually a fleet, under a convoy of ships
 of war, for the transportation of merchandise and supplies for the
 colonies, returning laden with cargoes of almost priceless value.
 Champlain, fertile in expedient, proposed to himself to visit Spain, and
 there form such acquaintances and obtain such influence as would secure to
 him in some way a passage to the Indies in this annual expedition.
 The Spanish forces, allies of the League in the late war, had not yet
 departed from the coast of France. He hastened to the port of Blavet, [18]
 where they were about to embark, and learned to his surprise and
 gratification that several French ships had been chartered, and that his
 uncle, a distinguished French mariner, commonly known as the _Provençal
 Cappitaine_, had received orders from Marshal de Brissac to conduct the
 fleet, on which the garrison of Blavet was embarked, to Cadiz in Spain.
 Champlain easily arranged to accompany his uncle, who was in command of the
 "St. Julian," a strong, well-built ship of five hundred tons.
 Having arrived at Cadiz, and the object of the voyage having been
 accomplished, the French ships were dismissed, with the exception of the
 "St. Julian," which was retained, with the Provincial Captain, who had
 accepted the office of pilot-general for that year, in the service of the
 King of Spain.
 After lingering a month at Cadiz, they proceeded to St. Lucar de Barameda,
 where Champlain remained three months, agreeably occupied in making
 observations and drawings of both city and country, including a visit to
 Seville, some fifty miles in the interior.
 In the mean time, the fleet for the annual visit to the West Indies, to
 which we have already alluded, was fitting out at Saint Lucar, and about to
 sail under the command of Don Francisco Colombo, who, attracted by the size
 and good sailing qualities of the "Saint Julian," chartered her for the
 voyage. The services of the pilot-general were required in another
 direction, and, with the approbation of Colombo, he gave the command of the
 "Saint Julian" to Champlain. Nothing could have been more gratifying than
 this appointment, which assured to Champlain a visit to the more important
 Spanish colonies under the most favorable circumstances.
 He accordingly set sail with the fleet, which left Saint Lucar at the
 beginning of January, 1599.
 Passing the Canaries, in two months and six days they sighted the little
 island of Deseada, [19] the _vestibule_ of the great Caribbean
 archipelago, touched at Guadaloupe, wound their way among the group called
 the Virgins, turning to the south made for Margarita, [20] then famous for
 its pearl fisheries, and from thence sailed to St. Juan de Porto-rico. Here
 the fleet was divided into three squadrons. One was to go to Porto-bello,
 on the Isthmus of Panama, another to the coast of South America, then
 called Terra Firma, and the third to Mexico, then known as New Spain. This
 latter squadron, to which Champlain was attached, coasted along the
 northern shore of the island of Saint Domingo, otherwise Hispaniola,
 touching at Porto Platte, Mancenilla, Mosquitoes, Monte Christo, and Saint
 Nicholas. Skirting the southern coast of Cuba, reconnoitring the Caymans,
 [21] they at length cast anchor in the harbor of San Juan d'Ulloa, the
 island fortress near Vera Cruz. While here, Champlain made an inland
 journey to the City of Mexico, where he remained a month. He also sailed in
 a _patache_, or advice-boat, to Porto-bello, when, after a month, he
 returned again to San Juan d'Ulloa. The squadron then sailed for Havana,
 from which place Champlain was commissioned to visit, on public business,
 Cartagena, within the present limits of New Grenada, on the coast of South
 America. The whole _armada_ was finally collected together at Havana,
 and from thence took its departure for Spain, passing through the channel
 of Bahama, or Gulf of Florida, sighting Bermuda and the Azores, reaching
 Saint Lucar early in March, 1601, after an absence from that port of two
 years and two months. [22]
 On Champlain's return to France, he prepared an elaborate report of his
 observations and discoveries, luminous with sixty-two illustrations
 sketched by his own hand. As it was his avowed purpose in making the voyage
 to procure information that should be valuable to his government, he
 undoubtedly communicated it in some form to Henry IV. The document remained
 in manuscript two hundred and fifty-seven years, when it was first printed
 at London in an English translation by the Hakluyt Society, in 1859. It is
 an exceedingly interesting and valuable tract, containing a lucid
 description of the peculiarities, manners, and customs of the people, the
 soil, mountains, and rivers, the trees, fruits, and plants, the animals,
 birds, and fishes, the rich mines found at different points, with frequent
 allusions to the system of colonial management, together with the character
 and sources of the vast wealth which these settlements were annually
 yielding to the Spanish crown.
 The reader of this little treatise will not fail to see the drift and
 tendency of Champlain's mind and character unfolded on nearly every page.
 His indomitable perseverance, his careful observation, his honest purpose
 and amiable spirit are at all times apparent. Although a Frenchman, a
 foreigner, and an entire stranger in the Spanish fleet, he had won the
 confidence of the commander so completely, that he was allowed by special
 permission to visit the City of Mexico, the Isthmus of Panama, and the
 coast of South America, all of which were prominent and important centres
 of interest, but nevertheless lying beyond the circuit made by the squadron
 to which he was attached.
 For the most part, Champlain's narrative of what he saw and of what he
 learned from others is given in simple terms, without inference or comment.
 His views are, however, clearly apparent in his description of the Spanish
 method of converting the Indians by the Inquisition, reducing them to
 slavery or the horrors of a cruel death, together with the retaliation
 practised by their surviving comrades, resulting in a milder method. This
 treatment of the poor savages by their more savage masters Champlain
 illustrates by a graphic drawing, in which two stolid Spaniards are
 guarding half a dozen poor wretches who are burning for their faith. In
 another drawing he represents a miserable victim receiving, under the eye
 and direction of the priest, the blows of an uplifted baton, as a penalty
 for not attending church.
 Champlain's forecast and fertility of mind may be clearly seen in his
 suggestion that a ship-canal across the Isthmus of Panama would be a work
 of great practical utility, saving, in the voyage to the Pacific side of
 the Isthmus, a distance of more than fifteen hundred leagues. [23]
 As it was the policy of Spain to withhold as much as possible all knowledge
 of her colonial system and wealth in the West Indies, we may add, that
 there is probably no work extant, on this subject, written at that period,
 so full, impartial, and truthful as this tract by Champlain. It was
 undoubtedly written out from notes and sketches made on the spot, and
 probably occupied the early part of the two years that followed his return
 from this expedition, during which period we are not aware that he entered
 upon any other important enterprise. [24]
 This tour among the Spanish colonies, and the description which Champlain
 gave of them, information so much desired and yet so difficult to obtain,
 appear to have made a strong and favorable impression upon the mind of
 Henry IV., whose quick comprehension of the character of men was one of the
 great qualities of this distinguished sovereign. He clearly saw that
 Champlain's character was made up of those elements which are indispensable
 in the servants of the executive will. He accordingly assigned him a
 pension to enable him to reside near his person, and probably at the same
 time honored him with a place within the charmed circle of the nobility.
 While Champlain was residing at court, rejoicing doubtless in his new
 honors and full of the marvels of his recent travels, he formed the
 acquaintance, or perhaps renewed an old one, with Commander de Chastes,
 [26] for many years governor of Dieppe, who had given a long life to the
 service of his country, both by sea [27] and by land, and was a warm and
 attached friend of Henry IV. The enthusiasm of the young voyager and the
 long experience of the old commander made their interviews mutually
 instructive and entertaining. De Chastes had observed and studied with
 great interest the recent efforts at colonization on the coast of North
 America. His zeal had been kindled and his ardor deepened doubtless by the
 glowing recitals of his young friend. It was easy for him to believe that
 France, as well as Spain, might gather in the golden fruits of
 colonization. The territory claimed by France was farther to the north, in
 climate and in sources of wealth widely different, and would require a
 different management. He had determined, therefore, to send out an
 expedition for the purpose of obtaining more definite information than he
 already possessed, with the view to surrender subsequently his government
 of Dieppe, take up his abode in the new world, and there dedicate his
 remaining years to the service of God and his king. He accordingly obtained
 a commission from the king, associating with himself some of the principal
 merchants of Rouen and other cities, and made preparations for despatching
 a pioneer fleet to reconnoitre and fix upon a proper place for settlement,
 and to determine what equipment would be necessary for the convenience and
 comfort of the colony. He secured the services of Pont Gravé, [28] a
 distinguished merchant and Canadian fur-trader, to conduct the expedition.
 Having laid his views open fully to Champlain, he invited him also to join
 the exploring party, as he desired the opinion and advice of so careful an
 observer as to a proper plan of future operations.
 No proposition could have been more agreeable to Champlain than this, and
 he expressed himself quite ready for the enterprise, provided De Chastes
 would secure the consent of the king, to whom he was under very great
 obligations. De Chastes readily obtained the desired permission, coupled,
 however, with an order from the king to Champlain to bring back to him a
 faithful report of the voyage. Leaving Paris, Champlain hastened to
 Honfleur, armed with a letter of instructions from M. de Gesures, the
 secretary of the king, to Pont Gravé, directing him to receive Champlain
 and afford him every facility for seeing and exploring the country which
 they were about to visit. They sailed for the shores of the New World on
 the 15th of March, 1603.
 The reader should here observe that anterior to this date no colonial
 settlement had been made on the northern coasts of America. These regions
 had, however, been frequented by European fishermen at a very early period,
 certainly within the decade after its discovery by John Cabot in 1497. But
 the Basques, Bretons, and Normans, [29] who visited these coasts, were
 intent upon their employment, and consequently brought home only meagre
 information of the country from whose shores they yearly bore away rich
 cargoes of fish.
 The first voyage made by the French for the purpose of discovery in our
 northern waters of which we have any authentic record was by Jacques
 Cartier in 1534, and another was made for the same purpose by this
 distinguished navigator in 1535. In the former, he coasted along the shores
 of Newfoundland, entered and gave its present name to the Bay of Chaleur,
 and at Gaspé took formal possession of the country in the name of the king.
 In the second, he ascended the St. Lawrence as far as Montreal, then an
 Indian village known by the aborigines as Hochelaga, situated on an island
 at the base of an eminence which they named _Mont-Royal_, from which the
 present commercial metropolis of the Dominion derives its name. After a
 winter of great suffering, which they passed on the St. Charles, near
 Quebec, and the death of many of his company, Cartier returned to France
 early in the summer of 1536. In 1541, he made a third voyage, under the
 patronage of François de la Roque, Lord de Roberval, a nobleman of Picardy.
 He sailed up the St. Lawrence, anchoring probably at the mouth of the river
 Cap Rouge, about four leagues above Quebec, where he built a fort which he
 named _Charlesbourg-Royal_. Here he passed another dreary and disheartening
 winter, and returned to France in the spring of 1542. His patron, De
 Roberval, who had failed to fulfil his intention to accompany him the
 preceding year, met him at St. John, Newfoundland. In vain Roberval urged
 and commanded him to retrace his course; but the resolute old navigator had
 too recent an experience and saw too clearly the inevitable obstacles to
 success in their undertaking to be diverted from his purpose. Roberval
 proceeded up the Saint Lawrence, apparently to the fort just abandoned by
 Cartier, which he repaired and occupied the next winter, naming it
 _Roy-Francois_; [30] but the disasters which followed, the sickness and
 death of many of his company, soon forced him, likewise, to abandon the
 enterprise and return to France.
 Of these voyages, Cartier, or rather his pilot-general, has left full and
 elaborate reports, giving interesting and detailed accounts of the mode of
 life among the aborigines, and of the character and products of the
 The entire want of success in all these attempts, and the absorbing and
 wasting civil wars in France, paralyzed the zeal and put to rest all
 aspirations for colonial adventure for more than half a century.
 But in 1598, when peace again began to dawn upon the nation, the spirit of
 colonization revived, and the Marquis de la Roche, a nobleman of Brittany,
 obtained a royal commission with extraordinary and exclusive powers of
 government and trade, identical with those granted to Roberval nearly sixty
 years before. Having fitted out a vessel and placed on board forty convicts
 gathered out of the prisons of France, he embarked for the northern coasts
 of America. The first land he made was Sable Island, a most forlorn
 sand-heap rising out of the Atlantic Ocean, some thirty leagues southeast
 of Cape Breton. Here he left these wretched criminals to be the strength
 and hope, the bone and sinew of the little kingdom which, in his fancy, he
 pictured to himself rising under his fostering care in the New World. While
 reconnoitring the mainland, probably some part of Nova Scotia, for the
 purpose of selecting a suitable location for his intended settlement, a
 furious gale swept him from the coast, and, either from necessity or
 inclination, he returned to France, leaving his hopeful colonists to a fate
 hardly surpassed by that of Selkirk himself, and at the same time
 dismissing the bright visions that had so long haunted his mind, of
 personal aggrandizement at the head of a colonial establishment.
 The next year, 1599, Sieur de Saint Chauvin, of Normandy, a captain in the
 royal marine, at the suggestion of Pont Gravé, of Saint Malo, an
 experienced fur-trader, to whom we have already referred, and who had made
 several voyages to the northwest anterior to this, obtained a commission
 sufficiently comprehensive, amply providing for a colonial settlement and
 the propagation of the Christian faith, with, indeed, all the privileges
 accorded by that of the Marquis de la Roche. But the chief and present
 object which Chauvin and Pont Gravé hoped to attain was the monopoly of the
 fur trade, which they had good reason to believe they could at that time
 conduct with success. Under this commission, an expedition was accordingly
 fitted out and sailed for Tadoussac. Successful in its main object, with a
 full cargo of valuable furs, they returned to France in the autumn,
 leaving, however, sixteen men, some of whom perished during the winter,
 while the rest were rescued from the same fate by the charity of the
 Indians. In the year 1600, Chauvin made another voyage, which was equally
 remunerative, and a third had been projected on a much broader scale, when
 his death intervened and prevented its execution.
 The death of Sieur de Chauvin appears to have vacated his commission, at
 least practically, opening the way for another, which was obtained by the
 Commander de Chastes, whose expedition, accompanied by Champlain, as we
 have already seen, left Honfleur on the 15th of March, 1603. It consisted
 of two barques of twelve or fifteen tons, one commanded by Pont Gravé, and
 the other by Sieur Prevert, of Saint Malo, and was probably accompanied by
 one or more advice-boats. They took with them two Indians who had been in
 France some time, doubtless brought over by De Chauvin on his last voyage.
 With favoring winds, they soon reached the banks of Newfoundland, sighted
 Cape Ray, the northern point of the Island of Cape Breton, Anticosti and
 Gaspé, coasting along the southern side of the river Saint Lawrence as far
 as the Bic, where, crossing over to the northern shore, they anchored in
 the harbor of Tadoussac. After reconnoitring the Saguenay twelve or fifteen
 leagues, leaving their vessels at Tadoussac, where an active fur trade was
 in progress with the Indians, they proceeded up the St. Lawrence in a light
 boat, passed Quebec, the Three Rivers, Lake St. Peter, the Richelieu, which
 they called the river of the Iroquois, making an excursion up this stream
 five or six leagues, and then, continuing their course, passing Montreal,
 they finally cast anchor on the northern side, at the foot of the Falls of
 St. Louis, not being able to proceed further in their boat.
 Having previously constructed a skiff for the purpose, Pont Gravé and
 Champlain, with five sailors and two Indians with a canoe, attempted to
 pass the falls. But after a long and persevering trial, exploring the
 shores on foot for some miles, they found any further progress quite
 impossible with their present equipment. They accordingly abandoned the
 undertaking and set out on their return to Tadoussac. They made short stops
 at various points, enabling Champlain to pursue his investigations with
 thoroughness and deliberation. He interrogated the Indians as to the course
 and extent of the St. Lawrence, as well as that of the other large rivers,
 the location of the lakes and falls, and the outlines and general features
 of the country, making rude drawings or maps to illustrate what the Indians
 found difficult otherwise to explain. [31]
 The savages also exhibited to them specimens of native copper, which they
 represented as having been obtained from the distant north, doubtless from
 the neighborhood of Lake Superior. On reaching Tadoussac, they made another
 excursion in one of the barques as far as Gaspé, observing the rivers,
 bays, and coves along the route. When they had completed their trade with
 the Indians and had secured from them a valuable collection of furs, they
 commenced their return voyage to France, touching at several important
 points, and obtaining from the natives some general hints in regard to the
 existence of certain mines about the head waters of the Bay of Fundy.
 Before leaving, one of the Sagamores placed his son in charge of Pont
 Gravé, that he might see the wonders of France, thus exhibiting a
 commendable appreciation of the advantages of foreign travel. They also
 obtained the gift of an Iroquois woman, who had been taken in war, and was
 soon to be immolated as one of the victims at a cannibal feast. Besides
 these, they took with them also four other natives, a man from the coast of
 La Cadie, and a woman and two boys from Canada.
 The two little barques left Gaspé on the 24th of August; on the 5th of
 September they were at the fishing stations on the Grand Banks, and on the
 20th of the same month arrived at Havre de Grâce, having been absent six
 months and six days.
 Champlain received on his arrival the painful intelligence that the
 Commander de Chastes, his friend and patron, under whose auspices the late
 expedition had been conducted, had died on the 13th of May preceding. This
 event was a personal grief as well as a serious calamity to him, as it
 deprived him of an intimate and valued friend, and cast a cloud over the
 bright visions that floated before him of discoveries and colonies in the
 New World. He lost no time in repairing to the court, where he laid before
 his sovereign, Henry IV., a map constructed by his own hand of the regions
 which he had just visited, together with a very particular narrative of the
 This "petit discours," as Champlain calls it, is a clear, compact,
 well-drawn paper, containing an account of the character and products of
 the country, its trees, plants, fruits, and vines, with a description of
 the native inhabitants, their mode of living, their clothing, food and its
 preparation, their banquets, religion, and method of burying their dead,
 with many other interesting particulars relating to their habits and
 Henry IV. manifested a deep interest in Champlain's narrative. He listened
 to its recital with great apparent satisfaction, and by way of
 encouragement promised not to abandon the undertaking, but to continue to
 bestow upon it his royal favor and patronage.
 There chanced at this time to be residing at court, a Huguenot gentleman
 who had been a faithful adherent of Henry IV. in the late war, Pierre du
 Guast, Sieur de Monts, gentleman ordinary to the king's chamber, and
 governor of Pons in Saintonge. This nobleman had made a trip for pleasure
 or recreation to Canada with De Chauvin, several years before, and had
 learned something of the country, and especially of the advantages of the
 fur trade with the Indians. He was quite ready, on the death of De Chastes,
 to take up the enterprise which, by this event, had been brought to a
 sudden and disastrous termination. He immediately devised a scheme for the
 establishment of a colony under the patronage of a company to be composed
 of merchants of Rouen, Rochelle, and of other places, their contributions
 for covering the expense of the enterprise to be supplemented, if not
 rendered entirely unnecessary, by a trade in furs and peltry to be
 conducted by the company.
 In less than two months after the return of the last expedition, De Monts
 had obtained from Henry IV., though contrary to the advice of his most
 influential minister, [32] a charter constituting him the king's lieutenant
 in La Cadie, with all necessary and desirable powers for a colonial
 settlement. The grant included the whole territory lying between the 4Oth
 and 46th degrees of north latitude. Its southern boundary was on a parallel
 of Philadelphia, while its northern was on a line extended due west from
 the most easterly point of the Island of Cape Breton, cutting New Brunswick
 on a parallel near Fredericton, and Canada near the junction of the river
 Richelieu and the St. Lawrence. It will be observed that the parts of New
 France at that time best known were not included in this grant, viz., Lake
 St. Peter, Three Rivers, Quebec, Tadoussac, Gaspé, and the Bay Chaleur.
 These were points of great importance, and had doubtless been left out of
 the charter by an oversight arising from an almost total want of a definite
 geographical knowledge of our northern coast. Justly apprehending that the
 places above mentioned might not be included within the limits of his
 grant, De Monts obtained, the next month, an extension of the bounds of his
 exclusive right of trade, so that it should comprehend the whole region of
 the gulf and river of St. Lawrence. [33]
 The following winter, 1603-4, was devoted by De Monts to organizing his
 company, the collection of a suitable band of colonists, and the necessary
 preparations for the voyage. His commission authorized him to seize any
 idlers in the city or country, or even convicts condemned to
 transportation, to make up the bone and sinew of the colony. To what extent
 he resorted to this method of filling his ranks, we know not. Early in
 April he had gathered together about a hundred and twenty artisans of all
 trades, laborers, and soldiers, who were embarked upon two ships, one of
 120 tons, under the direction of Sieur de Pont Gravé, commanded, however,
 by Captain Morel, of Honfleur; another of 150 tons, on which De Monts
 himself embarked with several noblemen and gentlemen, having Captain
 Timothée, of Havre de Grâce, as commander.
 De Monts extended to Champlain an invitation to join the expedition, which
 he readily accepted, but, nevertheless, on the condition, as in the
 previous voyage, of the king's assent, which was freely granted,
 nevertheless with the command that he should prepare a faithful report of
 his observations and discoveries.
 18. Blavet was situated at the mouth of the River Blavet, on the southern
     coast of Brittany. Its occupation had been granted to the Spanish by
     the Duke de Mercoeur during the civil war, and, with other places held
     by the Spanish, was surrendered by the treaty of Vervins, in June,
     1598. It was rebuilt and fortified by Louis XIII, and is now known as
     Port Louis.
 19. _Deseada_, signifying in Spanish the desired land.
 20. _Margarita_, a Spanish word from the Greek [Greek: margaritaes],
     signifying a pearl. The following account by an eye-witness will not be
     uninteresting: "Especially it yieldeth store of pearls, those gems
     which the Latin writers call _Uniones_, because _nulli duo reperiuntur
     discreti_, they always are found to grow in couples. In this Island
     there are many rich Merchants who have thirty, forty, fifty _Blackmore_
     slaves only to fish out of the sea about the rocks these pearls....
     They are let down in baskets into the Sea, and so long continue under
     the water, until by pulling the rope by which they are let down, they
     make their sign to be taken up.... From _Margarita_ are all the Pearls
     sent to be refined and bored to _Carthagena_, where is a fair and
     goodly street of no other shops then of these Pearl dressers. Commonly
     in the month of _July_ there is a ship or two at most ready in the
     Island to carry the King's revenue, and the Merchant's pearls to
     _Carthagena_. One of these ships is valued commonly at three score
     thousand or four score thousand ducats and sometimes more, and
     therefore are reasonable well manned; for that the _Spaniards_ much
     fear our _English_ and the _Holland_ ships."--_Vide New Survey of the
     West Indies_, by Thomas Gage, London, 1677, p. 174.
 21. _Caymans_, Crocodiles.
 22. For an interesting Account of the best route to and from the West
     Indies in order to avoid the vigilant French and English corsairs, see
     _Notes on Giovanni da Verrazano_, by J. C. Brevoort, New York, 1874, p.
 23. At the time that Champlain was at the isthmus, in 1599-1601, the gold
     and silver of Peru were brought to Panama, then transported on mules a
     distance of about four leagues to a river, known as the Rio Chagres,
     whence they were conveyed by water first to Chagres. and thence along
     the coast to Porto-bello, and there shipped to Spain.
     Champlain refers to a ship-canal in the following words: "One might
     judge, if the territory four leagues in extent lying between Panama and
     this river were cut through, he could pass from the south sea to that
     on the other side, and thus shorten the route by more than fifteen
     hundred leagues. From Panama to the Straits of Magellan would
     constitute an island, and from Panama to New Foundland another, so that
     the whole of America would be in two islands."--_Vide Brief Discours
     des Choses Plus Rémarquables_, par Sammuel Champlain de Brovage, 1599,
     Quebec ed., Vol. I. p 141. This project of a ship canal across the
     isthmus thus suggested by Champlain two hundred and eighty years ago is
     now attracting the public attention both in this country and in Europe.
     Several schemes are on foot for bringing it to pass, and it will
     undoubtedly be accomplished, if it shall be found after the most
     careful and thorough investigation to be within the scope of human
     power, and to offer adequate commercial advantages.
     Some of the difficulties to be overcome are suggested by Mr. Marsh in
     the following excerpt--
     "The most colossal project of canalization ever suggested, whether we
     consider the physical difficulties of its execution, the magnitude and
     importance of the waters proposed to be united, or the distance which
     would be saved in navigation, is that of a channel between the Gulf of
     Mexico and the Pacific, across the Isthmus of Darien. I do not now
     speak of a lock-canal, by way of the Lake of Nicaragua, or any other
     route,--for such a work would not differ essentially from other canals
     and would scarcely possess a geographical character,--but of an open
     cut between the two seas. The late survey by Captain Selfridge, showing
     that the lowest point on the dividing ridge is 763 feet above the
     sea-level, must be considered as determining in the negative the
     question of the possibility of such a cut, by any means now at the
     control of man; and both the sanguine expectations of benefits, and the
     dreary suggestions of danger from the realization of this great dream,
     may now be dismissed as equally chimerical."--_Vide The Earth as
     Modified by Human Action_, by George P. Marsh, New York, 1874, p. 612.
 24. A translation of Champlain's Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico was
     made by Alice Wilmere, edited by Norton Shaw, and published by the
     Hakluyt Society, London, 1859.
 25. No positive evidence is known to exist as to the time when Champlain
     was ennobled. It seems most likely to have been in acknowledgment of
     his valuable report made to Henry IV. after his visit to the West
 26. Amyar de Chastes died on the 13th of May, 1603, greatly respected and
     beloved by his fellow-citizens. He was charged by his government with
     many important and responsible duties. In 1583, he was sent by Henry
     III., or rather by Catherine de Médicis, to the Azores with a military
     force to sustain the claims of Antonio, the Prior of Crato, to the
     throne of Portugal. He was a warm friend and supporter of Henry IV.,
     and took an active part in the battles of Ivry and Arques. He commanded
     the French fleet on the coasts of Brittany; and, during the long
     struggle of this monarch with internal enemies and external foes, he
     was in frequent communication with the English to secure their
     co-operation, particularly against the Spanish. He accompanied the Duke
     de Boullon, the distinguished Huguenot nobleman, to England, to be
     present and witness the oath of Queen Elizabeth to the treaty made with
     On this occasion he received a valuable jewel as a present from the
     English queen. He afterwards directed the ceremonies and entertainment
     of the Earl of Shrewsbury, who was deputed to receive the ratification
     of the before-mentioned treaty by Henry IV. _Vide Busk's His. Spain and
     Portugal_, London, 1833, p. 129 _et passim_; _Denis' His. Portugal_,
     Paris, 1846, p. 296; _Freer's Life of Henry IV._, Vol. I. p. 121, _et
     passim_; _Memoirs of Sully_, Philadelphia, 1817, Vol. I. p. 204;
     _Birch's Memoirs Queen Elizabeth_, London, 1754, Vol. II. pp. 121, 145,
     151, 154, 155; _Asselini MSS. Chron._, cited by Shaw in _Nar Voyage to
     West Ind. and Mexico_, Hakluyt Soc., 1859, p. xv.
 27. "Au même tems les nouvelles vinrent.... que le Commandeur de Chastes
     dressoit une grande Armée de Mer en Bretagne."--_Journal de Henri III._
     (1586), Paris, 1744, Tom. III. p. 279.
 28. Du Pont Gravé was a merchant of St Malo. He had been associated with
     Chauvin in the Canada trade, and continued to visit the St Lawrence for
     this purpose almost yearly for thirty years.
     He was greatly respected by Champlain, and was closely associated with
     him till 1629. After the English captured Quebec, he appears to have
     retired, forced to do so by the infirmities of age.
 29. Jean Parmentier, of Dieppe, author of the _Discorso d'un gran capitano_
     in Ramusio, Vol. III., p. 423, wrote in the year 1539, and he says the
     Bretons and Normans were in our northern waters thirty-five years
     before, which would be in 1504. _Vide_ Mr. Parkman's learned note and
     citations in _Pioneers of France in the New World_, pp. 171, 172. The
     above is doubtless the authority on which the early writers, such as
     Pierre Biard, Champlain, and others, make the year 1504 the period when
     the French voyages for fishing commenced.
 30. _Vide Voyage of Iohn Alphonse of Xanctoigne_, Hakluyt, Vol. III., p.
 31. Compare the result of these inquiries as stated by Champlain, p.252 of
     this vol and _New Voyages_, by Baron La Hontan, 1684, ed. 1735, Vol I.
     p. 30.
 32. The Duke of Sully's disapprobation is expressed in the following words:
     "The colony that was sent to Canada this year, was among the number of
     those things that had not my approbation; there was no kind of riches
     to be expected from all those countries of the new world, which are
     beyond the fortieth degree of latitude. His majesty gave the conduct of
     this expedition to the Sieur du Mont."--_Memoirs of Sully_,
     Philadelphia, 1817, Vol. III. p. 185.
 33. "Frequenter, négocier, et communiquer durant ledit temps de dix ans,
     depuis le Cap de Raze jusques au quarantième degré, comprenant toute la
     côte de la Cadie, terre et Cap Breton, Bayes de Sainct-Cler, de
     Chaleur, Ile Percée, Gachepé, Chinschedec, Mesamichi, Lesquemin,
     Tadoussac, et la rivière de Canada, tant d'un côté que d'aurre, et
     toutes les Bayes et rivières qui entrent au dedans désdites côtes."--
     Extract of Commission, _Histoire de la Nouvelle-France_, par Lescarbot,
     Paris, 1866, Vol. II. p. 416.
 De Monts, with Champlain and the other noblemen, left Havre de Grâce on the
 7th April, 1604, while Pont Gravé, with the other vessel, followed three
 days later, to rendezvous at Canseau.
 Taking a more southerly course than he had originally intended, De Monts
 came in sight of La Hève on the 8th of May, and on the 12th entered
 Liverpool harbor, where he found Captain Rossignol, of Havre de Grâce,
 carrying on a contraband trade in furs with the Indians, whom he arrested,
 and confiscated his vessel.
 The next day they anchored at Port Mouton, where they lingered three or
 four weeks, awaiting news from Pont Gravé, who had in the mean time arrived
 at Canseau, the rendezvous agreed upon before leaving France. Pont Gravé
 had there discovered several Basque ships engaged in the fur-trade. Taking
 possession of them, he sent their masters to De Monts. The ships were
 subsequently confiscated and sent to Rochelle.
 Captain Fouques was despatched to Canseau in the vessel which had been
 taken from Rossignol, to bring forward the supplies which had been brought
 over by Pont Gravé. Having transshipped the provisions intended for the
 colony, Pont Gravé proceeded through the Straits of Canseau up the St.
 Lawrence, to trade with the Indians, upon the profits of which the company
 relied largely for replenishing their treasury.
 In the mean time Champlain was sent in a barque of eight tons, with the
 secretary Sieur Ralleau, Mr. Simon, the miner, and ten men, to reconnoitre
 the coast towards the west. Sailing along the shore, touching at numerous
 points, doubling Cape Sable, he entered the Bay of Fundy, and after
 exploring St. Mary's Bay, and discovering several mines of both Silver and
 iron, returned to Port Mouton and made to De Monts a minute and careful
 De Monts immediately weighed anchor and sailed for the Bay of St. Mary,
 where he left his vessel, and, with Champlain, the miner, and some others,
 proceeded to explore the Bay of Fundy. They entered and examined Annapolis
 harbor, coasted along the western shores of Nova Scotia, touching at the
 Bay of Mines, passing over to New Brunswick, skirting its whole
 southeastern coast, entering the harbor of St. John, and finally
 penetrating Passamaquoddy Bay as far as the mouth of the river St. Croix,
 and fixed upon De Monts's Island [34] as the seat of their colony. The
 vessel at St. Mary's with the colonists was ordered to join them, and
 immediately active measures were taken for laying out gardens, erecting
 dwellings and storehouses, and all the necessary preparations for the
 coming winter. Champlain was commissioned to design and lay out the town,
 if so it could be called.
 When the work was somewhat advanced, he was sent in a barque of five or six
 tons, manned with nine sailors, to search for a mine of pure copper, which
 an Indian named Messamoüet had assured them he could point out to them on
 the coast towards the river St. John. Some twenty-five miles from the river
 St. Croix, they found a mine yielding eighteen per cent, as estimated by
 the miner; but they did not discover any pure copper, as they had hoped.
 On the last day of August, 1604, the vessel which had brought out the
 colony, together with that which had been taken from Rossignol, took their
 departure for the shores of France. In it sailed Poutrincourt, Ralleau the
 secretary of De Monts, and Captain Rossignol.
 From the moment of his arrival on the coast of America, Champlain employed
 his leisure hours in making sketches and drawings of the most important
 rivers, harbors, and Indian settlements which they had visited.
 While the little colony at De Monts's Island was active in getting its
 appointments arranged and settled, De Monts wisely determined, though he
 could not accompany it himself, nevertheless to send out an expedition
 during the mild days of autumn, to explore the region still further to the
 south, then called by the Indians Norumbegue. Greatly to the satisfaction
 of Champlain, he was personally charged, with this important expedition. He
 set out on the 2d of September, in a barque of seventeen or eighteen tons,
 with twelve sailors and two Indian guides. The inevitable fogs of that
 region detained them nearly a fortnight before they were able to leave the
 banks of Passamaquoddy. Passing along the rugged shores of Maine, with its
 endless chain of islands rising one after another into view, which they
 called the Ranges, they at length came to the ancient Pemetiq, lying close
 in to the shore, having the appearance at sea of seven or eight mountains
 drawn together and springing from the same base. This Champlain named
 _Monts Déserts_, which we have anglicized into Mount Desert, [35] an
 appellation which has survived the vicissitudes of two hundred and
 seventy-five years, and now that the island, with its salubrious air and
 cool shades, its bold and picturesque scenery, is attracting thousands from
 the great cities during the heats of summer, the name is likely to abide
 far down into a distant and indefinite future.
 Leaving Mount Desert, winding their way among numerous islands, taking a
 northerly direction, they soon entered the Penobscot, [36] known by the
 early navigators as the river Norumbegue. They proceeded up the river as
 far as the mouth of an affluent now known as the Kenduskeag, [37] which was
 then called, or rather the place where it made a junction with the
 Penobscot was called by the natives, _Kadesquit_, situated at the head of
 tide-water, near the present site of the city of Bangor. The falls above
 the city intercepted their further progress. The river-banks about the
 harbor were fringed with a luxurious growth of forest trees. On one side,
 lofty pines reared their gray trunks, forming a natural palisade along the
 shore. On the other, massive oaks alone were to be seen, lifting their
 sturdy branches to the skies, gathered into clumps or stretching out into
 long lines, as if a landscape gardener had planted them to please the eye
 and gratify the taste. An exploration revealed the whole surrounding region
 clothed in a similar wild and primitive beauty.
 After a leisurely survey of the country, they returned to the mouth of the
 river. Contrary to what might have been expected, Champlain found scarcely
 any inhabitants dwelling on the borders of the Penobscot. Here and there
 they saw a few deserted wigwams, which were the only marks of human
 occupation. At the mouth of the river, on the borders of Penobscot Bay, the
 native inhabitants were numerous. They were of a friendly disposition, and
 gave their visitors a cordial welcome, readily entered into negotiations
 for the sale of beaver-skins, and the two parties mutually agreed to
 maintain a friendly intercourse in the future.
 Having obtained from the Indians some valuable information as to the source
 of the Penobscot, and observed their mode of life, which did not differ
 from that which they had seen still further east, Champlain departed on the
 20th of September, directing his course towards the Kennebec. But,
 encountering bad weather, he found it necessary to take shelter under the
 lee of the island of Monhegan.
 After sailing three or four leagues farther, finding that his provisions
 would not warrant the continuance of the voyage, he determined, on the 23d
 of September, to return to the settlement at Saint Croix, or what is now
 known as De Monts's Island, where they arrived on the 2d day of October,
 De Monts's Island, having an area of not more than six or seven acres, is
 situated in the river Saint Croix, midway between its opposite shores,
 directly upon the dividing line between the townships of Calais and
 Robinston in the State of Maine. At the northern end of the island, the
 buildings of the settlement were clustered together in the form of a
 quadrangle with an open court in the centre. First came the magazine and
 lodgings of the soldiers, then the mansion of the governor, De Monts,
 surmounted by the colors of France. Houses for Champlain and the other
 gentlemen, [38] for the curé, the artisans and workmen, filled up and
 completed the quadrangle. Below the houses, gardens were laid out for the
 several gentlemen, and at the southern extremity of the island cannon were
 mounted for protection against a sudden assault.
 In the ample forests of Maine or New Brunswick, rich in oak and maple and
 pine, abounding in deer, partridge, and other wild game, watered by crystal
 fountains springing from every acre of the soil, we naturally picture for
 our colonists a winter of robust health, physical comfort, and social
 enjoyment. The little island which they had chosen was indeed a charming
 spot in a summer's day, but we can hardly comprehend in what view it could
 have been regarded as suitable for a colonial plantation. In space it was
 wholly inadequate; it was destitute of wood and fresh water, and its soil
 was sandy and unproductive. In fixing the location of their settlement and
 in the construction of their houses, it is obvious that they had entirely
 misapprehended the character of the climate. While the latitude was nearly
 the same, the temperature was far more rigorous than that of the sunny
 France which they had left. The snow began to fall on the 6th of October.
 On the 3d of December the ice was seen floating on the surface of the
 water. As the season advanced, and the tide came and went, huge floes of
 ice, day after day, swept by the island, rendering it impracticable to
 navigate the river or pass over to the mainland. They were therefore
 imprisoned in their own home. Thus cut off from the game with which the
 neighboring forests abounded, they were compelled to subsist almost
 exclusively upon salted meats. Nearly all the forest trees on the island
 had been used in the construction of their houses, and they had
 consequently but a meagre supply of fuel to resist the chilling winds and
 penetrating frosts. For fresh water, their only reliance was upon melted
 snow and ice. Their store-house had not been furnished with a cellar, and
 the frost left nothing untouched; even cider was dispensed in solid blocks.
 To crown the gloom and wretchedness of their situation, the colony was
 visited with disease of a virulent and fatal character. As the malady was
 beyond the knowledge, so it baffled the skill of the surgeons. They called
 it _mal de la terre_. Of the seventy-nine persons, composing the whole
 number of the colony, thirty-five died, and twenty others were brought to
 the verge of the grave. In May, having been liberated from the baleful
 influence of their winter prison and revived by the genial warmth of the
 vernal sun and by the fresh meats obtained from the savages, the disease
 abated, and the survivors gradually regained their strength.
 Disheartened by the bitter experiences of the winter, the governor, having
 fully determined to abandon his present establishment, ordered two boats to
 be constructed, one of fifteen and the other of seven tons, in which to
 transport his colony to Gaspé, in case he received no supplies from France,
 with the hope of obtaining a passage home in some of the fishing vessels on
 that coast. But from this disagreeable alternative he was happily relieved.
 On the 15th of June, 1605, Pont Gravé arrived, to the great joy of the
 little colony, with all needed supplies. The purpose of returning to France
 was at once abandoned, and, as no time was to be lost, on the 18th of the
 same month, De Monts, Champlain, several gentlemen, twenty sailors, two
 Indians, Panounias and his wife, set sail for the purpose of discovering a
 more eligible site for his colony somewhere on the shores of the present
 New England. Passing slowly along the coast, with which Champlain was
 already familiar, and consequently without extensive explorations, they at
 length reached the waters of the Kennebec, [39] where the survey of the
 previous year had terminated and that of the present was about to begin.
 On the 5th of July, they entered the Kennebec, and, bearing to the right,
 passed through Back River, [40] grazing their barque on the rocks in the
 narrow channel, and then sweeping down round the southern point of
 Jerremisquam Island, or Westport, they ascended along its eastern shores
 till they came near the present site of Wiscasset, from whence they
 returned on the western side of the island, through Monseag Bay, and
 threading the narrow passage between Arrowsick and Woolwich, called the
 Upper Hell-gate, and again entering the Kennebec, they finally reached
 Merrymeeting Bay. Lingering here but a short time, they returned through
 the Sagadahock, or lower Kennebec, to the mouth of the river.
 This exploration did not yield to the voyagers any very interesting or
 important results. Several friendly interviews were held with the savages
 at different points along the route. Near the head waters of the Sheepscot,
 probably in Wiscasset Bay, they had an interview, an interesting and joyous
 meeting, with the chief Manthomerme and twenty-five or thirty followers,
 with whom they exchanged tokens of friendship. Along the shores of the
 Sheepscot their attention was attracted by several pleasant streams and
 fine expanses of meadow; but the soil observed on this expedition
 generally, and especially on the Sagadahock, [41] or lower Kennebec, was
 rough and barren, and offered, in the judgment of De Monts and Champlain,
 no eligible site for a new settlement.
 Proceeding, therefore, on their voyage, they struck directly across Casco
 Bay, not attempting, in their ignorance, to enter the fine harbor of
 On the 9th of July, they made the bay that stretches from Cape Elizabeth to
 Fletcher's Neck, and anchored under the lee of Stratton Island, directly in
 sight of Old Orchard Beach, now a famous watering place during the summer
 The savages having seen the little French barque approaching in the
 distance, had built sires to attract its attention, and came down upon the
 shore at Prout's Neck, formerly known as Black Point, in large numbers,
 indicating their friendliness by lively demonstrations of joy. From this
 anchorage, while awaiting the influx of the tide to enable them to pass
 over the bar and enter a river which they saw flowing into the bay, De
 Monts paid a visit to Richmond's Island, about four miles distant, which he
 was greatly delighted, as he found it richly studded with oak and hickory,
 whose bending branches were wreathed with luxuriant grapevines loaded with
 green clusters of unripe fruit. In honor of the god of wine, they gave to
 the island the classic name of Bacchus. [42] At full tide they passed over
 the bar and cast anchor within the channel of the Saco.
 The Indians whom they found here were called Almouchiquois, and differed in
 many respects from any which they had seen before, from the Sourequois of
 Nova Scotia and the Etechemins of the northern part of Maine and New
 Brunswick. They spoke a different language, and, unlike their neighbors on
 the east, did not subsist mainly by the chase, but upon the products of the
 soil, supplemented by fish, which were plentiful and of excellent quality,
 and which they took with facility about the mouth of the river. De Monts
 and Champlain made an excursion upon the shore, where their eyes were
 refreshed by fields of waving corn, and gardens of squashes, beans, and
 pumpkins, which were then bursting into flower. [43] Here they saw in
 cultivation the rank narcotic _petun_, or tobacco, [44] just beginning to
 spread out its broad velvet leaves to the sun, the sole luxury of savage
 life. The forests were thinly wooded, but were nevertheless rich in
 primitive oak, in lofty ash and elm, and in the more humble and sturdy
 beech. As on Richmond's Island so here, along the bank of the river they
 found grapes in luxurious growth, from which the sailors busied themselves
 in making verjuice, a delicious beverage in the meridian heats of a July
 sun. The natives were gentle and amiable, graceful in figure, agile in
 movement, and exhibited unusual taste, dressing their hair in a variety of
 twists and braids, intertwined with ornamental feathers.
 Champlain observed their method of cultivating Indian corn, which the
 experience of two hundred and seventy-five years has in no essential point
 improved or even changed. They planted three or four seeds in hills three
 feet apart, and heaped the earth about them, and kept the soil clear of
 weeds. Such is the method of the successful New England farmer to-day. The
 experience of the savage had taught him how many individuals of the rank
 plant could occupy prolifically a given area, how the soil must be gathered
 about the roots to sustain the heavy stock, and that there must be no rival
 near it to draw away the nutriment on which the voracious plant feeds and
 grows. Civilization has invented implements to facilitate the processes of
 culture, but the observation of the savage had led him to a knowledge of
 all that is absolutely necessary to ensure a prolific harvest.
 After lingering two days at Saco, our explorers proceeded on their voyage.
 When they had advanced not more than twenty miles, driven by a fierce wind,
 they were forced to cast anchor near the salt marshes of Wells. Having been
 driven by Cape Porpoise, on the subsidence of the wind, they returned to
 it, reconnoitred its harbor and adjacent islands, together with Little
 River, a few miles still further to the east. The shores were lined all
 along with nut-trees and grape-vines. The islands about Cape Porpoise were
 matted all over with wild currants, so that the eye could scarcely discern
 any thing else. Attracted doubtless by this fruit, clouds of wild pigeons
 had assembled there, and were having a midsummer's festival, fearless of
 the treacherous snare or the hunter's deadly aim. Large numbers of them
 were taken, which added a coveted luxury to the not over-stocked larder of
 the little French barque.
 On the 15th of July, De Monts and his party left Cape Porpoise,
 keeping in and following closely the sinuosities of the shore. They
 saw no savages during the day, nor any evidences of any, except a
 rising smoke, which they approached, but found to be a lone beacon,
 without any surroundings of human life. Those who had kindled the fire
 had doubtless concealed themselves, or had fled in dismay. Possibly
 they had never seen a ship under sail. The fishermen who frequented
 our northern coast rarely came into these waters, and the little craft
 of our voyagers, moving without oars or any apparent human aid, seemed
 doubtless to them a monster gliding upon the wings of the wind. At the
 setting of the sun, they were near the flat and sandy coast, now known
 as Wallace's Sands. They fought in vain for a roadstead where they
 might anchor safely for the night. When they were opposite to Little
 Boar's Head, with the Isles of Shoals directly east of them, and the
 reflected rays of the sun were still throwing their light upon the
 waters, they saw in the distance the dim outline of Cape Anne, whither
 they directed their course, and, before morning, came to anchor near
 its eastern extremity, in sixteen fathoms of water. Near them were the
 three well-known islands at the apex of the cape, covered with
 forest-trees, and the woodless cluster of rocks, now called the
 Savages, a little further from the shore.
 The next morning five or six Indians timidly approached them in a canoe,
 and then retired and set up a dance on the shore, as a token of friendly
 greeting. Armed with crayon and drawing-paper, Champlain was despatched to
 seek from the natives some important geographical information. Dispensing
 knives and biscuit as a friendly invitation, the savages gathered about
 him, assured by their gifts, when he proceeded to impart to them their
 first lesson in topographical drawing. He pictured to them the bay on the
 north side of Cape Anne, which he had just traversed, and signifying to
 them that he desired to know the course of the shore on the south, they
 immediately gave him an example of their apt scholarship by drawing with
 the same crayon an accurate outline of Massachusetts Bay, and finished up
 Champlain's own sketch by introducing the Merrimac River, which, not having
 been seen, owing to the presence of Plum Island, which stretches like a
 curtain before its mouth, he had omitted to portray. The intelligent
 natives volunteered a bit of history. By placing six pebbles at equal
 distances, they intimated that Massachusetts Bay was occupied by six
 tribes, and governed by as many chiefs. [45] He learned from them,
 likewise, that the inhabitants of this region subsisted by agriculture, as
 did those at the mouth of the Saco, and that they were very numerous.
 Leaving Cape Anne on Saturday the 16th of July, De Monts entered
 Massachusetts Bay, sailed into Boston harbor, and anchored on the western
 side of Noddle's Island, now better known as East Boston. In passing into
 the bay, they observed large patches of cleared land, and many fields of
 waving corn both upon the islands and the mainland. The water and the
 islands, the open fields and lofty forest-trees, presented fine contrasts,
 and rendered the scenery attractive and beautiful. Here for the first time
 Champlain observed the log canoe. It was a clumsy though serviceable boat
 in still waters, nevertheless unstable and dangerous in unskilful hands.
 They saw, issuing into the bay, a large river, coming from the west, which
 they named River du Guast, in honor of Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, the
 patentee of La Cadie, and the patron and director of this expedition. This
 was Charles River, seen, evidently just at its confluence with the Mystic.
 On Sunday, the 17th of July, 1605, they left Boston harbor, threading their
 way among the islands, passing leisurely along the south shore, rounding
 Point Allerton on the peninsula of Nantasket, gliding along near Cohasset
 and Scituate, and finally cast anchor at Brant Point, upon the southern
 borders of Marshfield. When they left the harbor of Boston, the islands and
 mainland were swarming with the native population. The Indians were,
 naturally enough, intensely interested in this visit of the little French
 barque. It may have been the first that had ever made its appearance in the
 bay. Its size was many times greater than any water-craft of their own.
 Spreading its white wings and gliding silently away without oarsmen, it
 filled them with surprise and admiration. The whole population was astir.
 The cornfields and fishing stations were deserted. Every canoe was manned,
 and a flotilla of their tiny craft came to attend, honor, and speed the
 parting guests, experiencing, doubtless, a sense of relief that they were
 going, and filled with a painful curiosity to know the meaning of this
 mysterious visit.
 Having passed the night at Brant Point, they had not advanced more than two
 leagues along a sandy shore dotted with wigwams and gardens, when they were
 forced to enter a small harbor, to await a more favoring wind. The Indians
 flocked about them, greeted them with cordiality, and invited them to enter
 the little river which flows into the harbor, but this they were unable to
 do, as the tide was low and the depth insufficient. Champlain's attention
 was attracted by several canoes in the bay, which had just completed their
 morning's work in fishing for cod. The fish were taken with a primitive
 hook and line, apparently in a manner not very different from that of the
 present day. The line was made of a filament of bark stripped from the
 trunk of a tree; the book was of wood, having a sharp bone, forming a barb,
 lashed to it with a cord of a grassy fibre, a kind of wild hemp, growing
 spontaneously in that region. Champlain landed, distributed trinkets among
 the natives, examined and sketched an outline of the place, which
 identifies it as Plymouth harbor, which captain John Smith visited in 1614,
 and where the May Flower, still six years later landed the first permanent
 colony planted upon New England soil.
 After a day at Plymouth, the little bark weighed anchor, swept down Cape
 Cod, approaching near to the reefs of Billingsgate, describing a complete
 semicircle, and finally, with some difficulty, doubled the cape whose white
 sands they had seen in the distance glittering in the sunlight and which
 appropriately they named _Cap Blanc_. This cape, however, had been visited
 three years before by Bartholomew Gosnold, and named Cape Cod, which
 appellation it has retained to the present time. Passing down on the
 outside of the cape some distance, they came to anchor, sent explorers on
 the shore, who ascending on of the lofty sand-banks [47] which may still be
 seen there silently resisting the winds and waves, discovered further to
 the south, what is now known as Nauset harbor, entirely surrounded by
 Indian cabins. The next day, the 20th of July, 1605, they effected an
 entrance without much difficulty. The bay was spacious, being nine or ten
 miles in circumference. Along the borders, there were, here and there,
 cultivated patches, interspersed with dwellings of the natives. The wigwam
 was cone-shaped, heavily thatched with reeds, having an orifice at the apex
 for the emission of smoke. In the fields were growing Indian corn,
 Brazilian beans, pumpkins, radishes, and tobacco; and in the woods were oak
 and hickory and red cedar. During their stay in the harbor they encountered
 an easterly storm, which continued four days, so raw and chilling that they
 were glad to hug their winter cloaks about them on the 22d of July. The
 natives were friendly and cordial, and entered freely into conversation
 with Champlain; but, as the language of each party was not understood by
 the other, the information he obtained from them was mostly by signs, and
 consequently too general to be historically interesting or important.
 The first and only act of hostility by the natives which De Monts and his
 party had thus far experienced in their explorations on the entire coast
 occurred in this harbor. Several of the men had gone ashore to obtain fresh
 water. Some of the Indians conceived an uncontrollable desire to capture
 the copper vessels which they saw in their hands. While one of the men was
 stooping to dip water from a spring, one of the savages darted upon him and
 snatched the coveted vessel from his hand. An encounter followed, and, amid
 showers of arrows and blows, the poor sailor was brutally murdered. The
 victorious Indian, fleet as the reindeer, escaped with his companions,
 bearing his prize with him into the depths of the forest. The natives on
 the shore, who had hitherto shown the greatest friendliness, soon came to
 De Monts, and by signs disowned any participation in the act, and assured
 him that the guilty parties belonged far in the interior. Whether this was
 the truth or a piece of adroit diplomacy, it was nevertheless accepted by
 De Monts, since punishment could only be administered at the risk of
 causing the innocent to suffer instead of the guilty.
 The young sailor whose earthly career was thus suddenly terminated, whose
 name even has not come down to us, was doubtless the first European, if we
 except Thorvald, the Northman, whose mortal remains slumber in the soil of
 As this voyage of discovery had been planned and provisioned for only six
 weeks, and more than five had already elapsed, on the 25th of July De Monts
 and his party left Nauset harbor, to join the colony still lingering at St.
 Croix. In passing the bar, they came near being wrecked, and consequently
 gave to the harbor the significant appellation of _Port de Mallebarre_, a
 name which has not been lost, but nevertheless, like the shifting sands of
 that region, has floated away from its original moorings, and now adheres
 to the sandy cape of Monomoy.
 On their return voyage, they made a brief stop at Saco, and likewise at the
 mouth of the Kennebec. At the latter point they had an interview with the
 sachem, Anassou, who informed them that a ship had been there, and that the
 men on board her had seized, under color of friendship, and killed five
 savages belonging to that river. From the description given by Anassou,
 Champlain was convinced that the ship was English, and subsequent events
 render it quite certain that it was the "Archangel," fitted out by the Earl
 of Southampton and Lord Arundel of Wardour, and commanded by Captain George
 Weymouth. The design of the expedition was to fix upon an eligible site for
 a colonial plantation, and, in pursuance of this purpose, Weymouth anchored
 off Monhegan on the 28th of May, 1605, _new style_, and, after spending a
 month in explorations of the region contiguous, left for England on the
 26th of June. [48] He had seized and carried away five of the natives,
 having concealed them in the hold of his ship, and Anassou, under the
 circumstances, naturally supposed they had been killed. The statement of
 the sachem, that the natives captured belonged to the river where Champlain
 then was, namely, the Kennebec, goes far to prove that Weymouth's
 explorations were in the Kennebec, or at least in the network of waters
 then comprehended under that appellation, and not in the Penobscot or in
 any other river farther east, as some historical writers have supposed.
 It would appear that while the French were carefully surveying the coasts
 of New England, in order to fix upon an eligible site for a permanent
 colonial settlement, the English were likewise upon the ground, engaged in
 a similar investigation for the same purpose. From this period onward, for
 more than a century and a half, there was a perpetual conflict and struggle
 for territorial possession on the northern coast of America, between these
 two great nations, sometimes active and violent, and at others subsiding
 into a semi-slumber, but never ceasing until every acre of soil belonging
 to the French had been transferred to the English by a solemn international
 On this exploration, Champlain noticed along the coast from Kennebec to
 Cape Cod, and described several objects in natural history unknown in
 Europe, such as the horse-foot crab, [49] the black skimmer, and the wild
 turkey, the latter two of which have long since ceased to visit this
 34. _De Monts's Island_. Of this island Champlain says: "This place was
     named by Sieur De Monts the Island of St. Croix."--_Vide_ Vol. II. p.
     32, note 86. St. Croix has now for a long time been applied as the name
     of the river in which this island is found. The French denominated this
     stream the River of the Etechemins, after the name of the tribe of
     savages inhabiting its shores. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 31. It continued to
     be so called for a long time. Denys speaks of it under this name in
     1672. "Depuis la riviere de Pentagouet, jusques à celle de saint Jean,
     il pent y avoir quarante à quarante cinq lieues; la première rivière
     que l'on rencontre le long de la coste, est celle des Etechemins, qui
     porte le nom du pays, depuis Baston jusques au Port royal, dont les
     Sauvages qui habitent toute cette étendue, portent aussi le mesme
     nom."--_Description Géographique et Historique des Costes de L'Amerique
     Septentrionale_, par Nicholas Denys, Paris, 1672, p. 29, _et verso_.
 35. Champlain had, by his own explorations and by consulting the Indians,
     obtained a very full and accurate knowledge of this island at his first
     visit, on the 5th of September, 1604, when he named it _Monts-déserts_,
     which we preserve in the English form, MOUNT DESERT. He observed that
     the distance across the channel to the mainland on the north side was
     less than a hundred paces. The rocky and barren summits of this cluster
     of little mountains obviously induced him to give to the island its
     appropriate and descriptive name _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 39. Dr. Edward
     Ballard derives the Indian name of this island, _Pemetiq_, from
     _pemé'te_, sloping, and _ki_, land. He adds that it probably denoted a
     single locality which was taken by Biard's company as the name of the
     whole island. _Vide Report of U. S. Coast Survey_ for 1868, p. 253.
 36. Penobscot is a corruption of the Abnaki _pa'na8a'bskek_. A nearly exact
     translation is "at the fall of the rock," or "at the descending rock."
     _Vide Trumball's Ind. Geog. Names_, Collections Conn. His. Society,
     Vol. II. p. 19. This name was originally given probably to some part of
     the river to which its meaning was particularly applicable. This may
     have been at the mouth of the river a Fort Point, a rocky elevation not
     less than eighty feet in height. Or it may have been the "fall of water
     coming down a slope of seven or eight feet," as Champlain expresses it,
     a short distance above the site of the present city of Bangor. That
     this name was first obtained by those who only visited the mouth of the
     river would seem to favor the former supposition.
 37. Dr. Edward Ballard supposes the original name of this stream,
     _Kadesquit_, to be derived from _kaht_, a Micmac word, for _eel_,
     denoting _eel stream_, now corrupted into _Kenduskeag_. The present
     site of the city of Bangor is where Biard intended to establish his
     mission in 1613, but he was finally induced to fix it at Mount
     Desert--_Vide Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed., Vol. I. p. 44.
 38. The other gentlemen whose names we have learned were Messieurs
     d'Orville, Champdoré, Beaumont, la Motte Bourioli, Fougeray or Foulgeré
     de Vitré, Genestou, Sourin, and Boulay. The orthography of the names,
     as they are mentioned from time to time, is various.
 39. _Kennebec_. Biard, in the _Relation, de la Nouvelle France, Relations
     des Jésuites_, Quebec ed., Vol. I. p. 35, writes it _Quinitequi_, and
     Champlain writes it _Quinibequy_ and _Quinebequi_; hence Mr. Trumball
     infers that it is probably equivalent in meaning to _quin-ni-pi-ohke_,
     meaning "long water place," derived from the Abnaki, _K8
     né-be-ki_.--_Vide Ind. Geog. Names_, Col. Conn. His. Soc. Vol. II. p.
 40. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 110.
 41. _Sagadahock_. This name is particularly applied to the lower part of
     the Kennebec. It is from the Abnaki, _sa'ghede'aki_, "land at the
     mouth."--_Vide Indian Geographical Names_, by J. H. Trumball, Col.
     Conn. His. Society, Vol. II. p. 30. Dr. Edward Ballard derives it from
     _sanktai-i-wi_, to finish, and _onk_, a locative, "the finishing
     place," which means the mouth of a river.--_Vide Report of U. S. Coast
     Survey_, 1868, p. 258.
 42. _Bacchus Island_. This was Richmond's Island, as we have stated in Vol.
     II. note 123. It will be admitted that the Bacchus Island of Champlain
     was either Richmond's Island or one of those in the bay of the Saco.
     Champlain does not give a specific name to any of the islands in the
     bay, as may be seen by referring to the explanations of his map of the
     bay, Vol. II p. 65. If one of them had been Bacchus Island, he would
     not have failed to refer to it, according to his uniform custom, under
     that name. Hence it is certain that his Bacchus Island was not one of
     those figured on his local map of the bay of the Saco. By reference to
     the large map of 1632, it will be seen that Bacchus Island is
     represented by the number 50, which is placed over against the largest
     island in the neighborhood and that farthest to the east, which, of
     course, must be Richmond's Island. It is, however, proper to state that
     these reference figures are not in general so carefully placed as to
     enable us to rely upon them in fixing a locality, particularly if
     unsupported by other evidence. But in this case other evidence is not
 43. _Vide_ Vol. II. pp. 64-67.
 44. _Nicotiana rustica. Vide_, Vol. II. by Charles Pickering, M.D. Boston,
     note 130. _Chronological His. Plants_, 1879, p. 741, _et passim_.
 45. Daniel Gookin, who wrote in 1674, speaks of the following subdivisions
     among the Massachusetts Indians: "Their chief sachem held dominion over
     many other petty governours; as those of Weechagafkas, Neponsitt,
     Punkapaog, Nonantam, Nashaway, and some of the Nipmuck people."--_Vide
     Gookin's His. Col._
 46. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 159. _Mushauiwomuk_, which we have converted into
     _Shawmut, means_, "where there is going-by-boat." The French, if they
     heard the name and learned its meaning, could hardly have failed to see
     the appropriateness of it as applied by the aborigines to Boston
     harbor.--_Vide Trumball_ in Connecticut Historical Society's
     Collections, Vol. II. p. 5.
 47. It was probably on this very bluff from which was seen Nauset harbor on
     the 19th of July, 1605, and after the lapse of two hundred and seventy
     four years, on the 17th of November, 1879 the citizens of the United
     States, with the flags of America, France, and England gracefully
     waving over their heads, addressed their congratulations by telegraph
     to the citizens of France at Brest on the communication between the two
     countries that day completed through submarine wires under the auspices
     of the "Compagnie Française du Télégraph de Paris à New York."
 48. _Vide_ Vol. II. p 91, note 176.
 49. The Horsefoot-crab, _Limulus polyphemus_. Champlain gives the Indian
     name, _siguenoc_. Hariot saw, while at Roanoke Island, in 1585, and
     described the same crustacean under the name of _seekanauk_. The Indian
     word is obviously the same, the differing French and English
     orthography representing the same sound. It thus appears that this
     shell-fish was at that time known by the aborigines under the same name
     for at least a thousand miles along the Atlantic coast, from the
     Kennebec, in Maine, to Roanoke Island, in North Carolina. _Vide
     Hariot's Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia_,
     Hakluyt, Vol. III. p. 334. See also Vol. II. of this work, notes 171,
     172, 173, for some account of the black skimmer and the wild turkey.
 On the 8th of August, the exploring party reached St. Croix. During their
 absence, Pont Gravé had arrived from France with additional men and
 provisions for the colony. As no satisfactory site had been found by De
 Monts in his recent tour along the coast, it was determined to remove the
 colony temporarily to Port Royal, situated within the bay now known as
 Annapolis Basin. The buildings at St. Croix, with the exception of the
 store-house, were taken down and transported to the bay. Champlain and Pont
 Gravé were sent forward to select a place for the settlement, which was
 fixed on the north side of the basin, directly opposite to Goat Island,
 near or upon the present site of Lower Granville. The situation was
 protected from the piercing and dreaded winds of the northwest by a lofty
 range of hills, [50] while it was elevated and commanded a charming view of
 the placid bay in front. The dwellings which they erected were arranged in
 the form of a quadrangle with an open court in the centre, as at St. Croix,
 while gardens and pleasure-grounds were laid out by Champlain in the
 immediate vicinity.
 When the work of the new settlement was well advanced, De Monts, having
 appointed Pont Gravé as his lieutenant, departed for France, where he hoped
 to obtain additional privileges from the government in his enterprise of
 planting a colony in the New World. Champlain preferred to remain, with the
 purpose of executing more fully his office as geographer to the king, by
 making discoveries on the Atlantic coast still further to the south.
 From the beginning, the patentee had cherished the desire of discovering
 valuable mines somewhere on his domains, whose wealth, as well as that of
 the fur-trade, might defray some part of the heavy expenses involved in his
 colonial enterprise. While several investigations for this purpose had
 proved abortive, it was hoped that greater success would be attained by
 searches along the upper part of the Bay of Fundy. Before the approach of
 winter, therefore, Champlain and the miner, Master Jaques, a Sclavonian,
 made a tour to St. John, where they obtained the services of the Indian
 chief, Secondon, to accompany them and point out the place where copper ore
 had been discovered at the Bay of Mines. The search, thorough as was
 practicable under the circumstances, was, in the main, unsuccessful; the
 few specimens which they found were meagre and insignificant.
 The winter at Port Royal was by no means so severe as the preceding one at
 St. Croix. The Indians brought in wild game from the forests. The colony
 had no want of fuel and pure water. But experience, bitter as it had been,
 did not yield to them the fruit of practical wisdom. They referred their
 sufferings to the climate, but took too little pains to protect themselves
 against its rugged power. Their dwellings, hastily thrown together, were
 cold and damp, arising from the green, unseasoned wood of which they were
 doubtless in part constructed, and from the standing rainwater with which
 their foundations were at all times inundated, which was neither diverted
 by embankments nor drawn away by drainage. The dreaded _mal de la terre_,
 or scurvy, as might have been anticipated, made its appearance in the early
 part of the season, causing the death of twelve out of the forty-five
 comprising their whole number, while others were prostrated by this
 painful, repulsive, and depressing disease.
 The purpose of making further discoveries on the southern coast, warmly
 cherished by Champlain, and entering fully into the plans of De Monts, had
 not been forgotten. Three times during the early part of the summer they
 had equipped their barque, made up their party, and left Port Royal for
 this undertaking, and as many times had been driven back by the violence of
 the winds and the waves.
 In the mean time, the supplies which had been promised and expected from
 France had not arrived. This naturally gave to Pont Gravé, the lieutenant,
 great anxiety, as without them it was clearly inexpedient to venture upon
 another winter in the wilds of La Cadie. It had been stipulated by De
 Monts, the patentee, that if succors did not arrive before the middle of
 July, Pont Gravé should make arrangements for the return of the colony by
 the fishing vessels to be found at the Grand Banks. Accordingly, on the
 17th of that month, Pont Gravé set sail with the little colony in two
 barques, and proceeded towards Cape Breton, to seek a passage home. But De
 Monts had not been remiss in his duty. He had, after many difficulties and
 delays, despatched a vessel of a hundred and fifty tons, called the
 "Jonas," with fifty men and ample provisions for the approaching winter.
 While Pont Gravé with his two barques and his retreating colony had run
 into Yarmouth Bay for repairs, the "Jonas" passed him unobserved, and
 anchored in the basin before the deserted settlement of Port Royal. An
 advice-boat had, however, been wisely despatched by the "Jonas" to
 reconnoitre the inlets along the shore, which fortunately intercepted the
 departing colony near Cape Sable, and, elated with fresh news from home,
 they joyfully returned to the quarters they had so recently abandoned.
 In addition to a considerable number of artisans and laborers for the
 colony, the "Jonas" had brought out Sieur De Poutrincourt, to remain as
 lieutenant of La Cadie, and likewise Marc Lescarbot, a young attorney of
 Paris, who had already made some scholarly attainments, and who
 subsequently distinguished himself as an author, especially by the
 publication of a history of New France.
 De Poutrincourt immediately addressed himself to putting all things in
 order at Port Royal, where it was obviously expedient for the colony to
 remain, at least for the winter. As soon as the "Jonas" had been unladen,
 Pont Gravé and most of those who had shared his recent hardships, departed
 in her for the shores of France. When the tenements had been cleansed,
 refitted, and refurnished, and their provisions had been safely stored, De
 Poutrincourt, by way of experiment, to test the character of the climate
 and the capability of the soil, despatched a squad of gardeners and farmers
 five miles up the river, to the grounds now occupied by the village of
 Annapolis, [51] where the soil was open, clear of forest trees, and easy of
 cultivation. They planted a great variety of seeds, wheat, rye, hemp, flax,
 and of garden esculents, which grew with extraordinary luxuriance, but, as
 the season was too late for any of them to ripen, the experiment failed
 either as a test of the soil or the climate.
 On a former visit in 1604, De Poutrincourt had conceived a great admiration
 for Annapolis basin, its protected situation, its fine scenery, and its
 rich soil. He had a strong desire to bring his family there and make it his
 permanent abode. With this design, he had requested and received from De
 Monts a personal grant of this region, which had also been confirmed to him
 [52] by Henry IV. But De Monts wished to plant his La Cadian colony in a
 milder and more genial climate. He had therefore enjoined upon De
 Poutrincourt, as his lieutenant, on leaving France, to continue the
 explorations for the selection of a site still farther to the south.
 Accordingly, on the 5th of September, 1606, De Poutrincourt left Annapolis
 Basin, which the French called Port Royal, in a barque of eighteen tons, to
 fulfil this injunction.
 It was Champlain's opinion that they ought to sail directly for Nauset
 harbor, on Cape Cod, and commence their explorations where their search had
 terminated the preceding year, and thus advance into a new region, which
 had not already been surveyed. But other counsels prevailed, and a large
 part of the time which could be spared for this investigation was exhausted
 before they reached the harbor of Nauset. They made a brief visit to the
 island of St. Croix, in which De Monts had wintered in 1604-5, touched also
 at Saco, where the Indians had already completed their harvest, and the
 grapes at Bacchus Island were ripe and luscious. Thence sailing directly to
 Cape Anne, where, finding no safe roadstead, they passed round to
 Gloucester harbor, which they found spacious, well protected, with good
 depth of water, and which, for its great excellence and attractive scenery,
 they named _Beauport_, or the beautiful harbor. Here they remained several
 days. It was a native settlement, comprising two hundred savages, who were
 cultivators of the soil, which was prolific in corn, beans, melons,
 pumpkins, tobacco, and grapes. The harbor was environed with fine forest
 trees, as hickory, oak, ash, cypress, and sassafras. Within the town there
 were several patches of cultivated land, which the Indians were gradually
 augmenting by felling the trees, burning the wood, and after a few years,
 aided by the natural process of decay, eradicating the stumps. The French
 were kindly received and entertained with generous hospitality. Grapes just
 gathered from the vines, and squashes of several varieties, the trailing
 bean still well known in New England, and the Jerusalem artichoke crisp
 from the unexhausted soil, were presented as offerings of welcome to their
 guests. While these gifts were doubtless tokens of a genuine friendliness
 so far as the savages were capable of that virtue, the lurking spirit of
 deceit and treachery which had been inherited and fostered by their habits
 and mode of life, could not be restrained.
 The French barque was lying at anchor a short distance northeast of Ten
 Pound Island. Its boat was undergoing repairs on a peninsula near by, now
 known as Rocky Neck, and the sailors were washing their linen just at the
 point where the peninsula is united to the mainland. While Champlain was
 walking on this causeway, he observed about fifty savages, completely
 armed, cautiously screening themselves behind a clump of bushes on the edge
 of Smith's Cove. As soon as they were aware that they were seen, they came
 forth, concealing their weapons as much as possible, and began to dance in
 token of a friendly greeting. But when they discovered De Poutrincourt in
 the wood near by, who had approached unobserved, with eight armed
 musketeers to disperse them in case of an attack, they immediately took to
 flight, and, scattering in all directions, made no further hostile
 demonstrations. [53] This serio-comic incident did not interfere with the
 interchange of friendly offices between the two parties, and when the
 voyagers were about to leave, the savages urged them with great earnestness
 to remain longer, assuring them that two thousand of their friends would
 pay them a visit the very next day. This invitation was, however, not
 heeded. In Champlain's opinion it was a _ruse_ contrived only to furnish a
 fresh opportunity to attack and overpower them.
 On the 30th of September, they left the harbor of Gloucester, and, during
 the following night, sailing in a southerly direction, passing Brant Point,
 they found themselves in the lower part of Cape Cod Bay. When the sun rose,
 a low, sandy shore stretched before them. Sending their boat forward to a
 place where the shore seemed more elevated, they found deeper water and a
 harbor, into which they entered in five or six fathoms. They were welcomed
 by three Indian canoes. They found oysters in such quantities in this bay,
 and of such excellent quality, that they named it _Le Port aux Huistres_,
 [54] or Oyster Harbor. After a few hours, they weighed anchor, and
 directing their course north, a quarter northeast, with a favoring wind,
 soon doubled Cape Cod. The next day, the 2d of October, they arrived off
 Nauset. De Poutrincourt, Champlain, and others entered the harbor in a
 small boat, where they were greeted by a hundred and fifty savages with
 singing and dancing, according to their usual custom. After a brief visit,
 they returned to the barque and continued their course along the sandy
 shore. When near the heel of the cape, off Chatham, they found themselves
 imperilled among breakers and sand-banks, so dangerous as to render it
 inexpedient to attempt to land, even with a small boat. The savages were
 observing them from the shore, and soon manned a canoe, and came to them
 with singing and demonstrations of joy. From them, they learned that lower
 down a harbor would be found, where their barque might ride in safety.
 Proceeding, therefore, in the same direction, after many difficulties, they
 succeeded in rounding the peninsula of Monomoy, and finally, in the gray of
 the evening, cast anchor in the offing near Chatham, now known as Old Stage
 Harbor. The next day they entered, passing between Harding's Beach Point
 and Morris Island, in two fathoms of water, and anchored in Stage Harbor.
 This harbor is about a mile long and half a mile wide, and at its western
 extremity is connected by tide-water with Oyster Pond, and with Mill Cove
 on the east by Mitchell's River. Mooring their barque between these two
 arms of the harbor, towards the westerly end, the explorers remained there
 about three weeks. It was the centre of an Indian settlement, containing
 five or six hundred persons. Although it was now well into October, the
 natives of both sexes were entirely naked, with the exception of a slight
 band about the loins. They subsisted upon fish and the products of the
 soil. Indian corn was their staple. It was secured in the autumn in bags
 made of braided grass, and buried in the sand-banks, and withdrawn as it
 was needed during the winter. The savages were of fine figure and of olive
 complexion. They adorned themselves with an embroidery skilfully interwoven
 with feathers and beads, and dressed their hair in a variety of braids,
 like those at Saco. Their dwellings were conical in shape, covered with
 thatch of rushes and corn-husks, and surrounded by cultivated fields. Each
 cabin contained one or two beds, a kind of matting, two or three inches in
 thickness, spread upon a platform on which was a layer of elastic staves,
 and the whole raised a foot from the ground. On these they secured
 refreshing repose. Their chiefs neither exercised nor claimed any superior
 authority, except in time of war. At all other times and in all other
 matters complete equality reigned throughout the tribe.
 The stay at Chatham was necessarily prolonged in baking bread to serve the
 remainder of the voyage, and in repairing their barque, whose rudder had
 been badly shattered in the rough passage round the cape. For these
 purposes, a bakery and a forge were set up on shore, and a tent pitched for
 the convenience and protection of the workmen. While these works were in
 progress, De Poutrincourt, Champlain, and others made frequent excursions
 into the interior, always with a guard of armed men, sometimes making a
 circuit of twelve or fifteen miles. The explorers were fascinated with all
 they saw. The aroma of the autumnal forest and the balmy air of October
 stimulated their senses. The nut-trees were loaded with ripe fruit, and the
 rich clusters of grapes were hanging temptingly upon the vines. Wild game
 was plentiful and delicious. The fish of the bay were sweet, delicate, and
 of many varieties. Nature, unaided by art, had thus supplied so many human
 wants that Champlain gravely put upon record his opinion that this would be
 a most excellent place in which to lay the foundations of a commonwealth,
 if the harbor were deeper and better protected at its mouth.
 After the voyagers had been in Chatham eight or nine days, the Indians,
 tempted by the implements which they saw about the forge and bakery,
 conceived the idea of taking forcible possession of them, in order to
 appropriate them to their own use. As a preparation for this, and
 particularly to put themselves in a favorable condition in case of an
 attack or reprisal, they were seen removing their women, children, and
 effects into the forests, and even taking down their cabins. De
 Poutrincourt, observing this, gave orders to the workmen to pass their
 nights no longer on shore, but to go on board the barque to assure their
 personal safety. This command, however, was not obeyed. The next morning,
 at break of day, four hundred savages, creeping softly over a hill in the
 rear, surrounded the tent, and poured such a volley of arrows upon the
 defenceless workmen that escape was impossible. Three of them were killed
 upon the spot; a fourth was mortally and a fifth badly wounded. The alarm
 was given by the sentinel on the barque. De Poutrincourt, Champlain, and
 the rest, aroused from their slumbers, rushed half-clad into the ship's
 boat, and hastened to the rescue. As soon as they touched the shore, the
 savages, fleet as the greyhound, escaped to the wood. Pursuit, under the
 circumstances, was not to be made; and, if it had been, would have ended in
 their utter destruction. Freed from immediate danger, they collected the
 dead and gave them Christian burial near the foot of a cross, which had
 been erected the day before. While the service of prayer and song was
 offered, the savages in the distance mocked them with derisive attitudes
 and hideous howls. Three hours after the French had retired to their
 barque, the miscreants returned, tore down the cross, disinterred the dead,
 and carried off the garments in which they had been laid to rest. They were
 immediately driven off by the French, the cross was restored to its place,
 and the dead reinterred.
 Before leaving Chatham, some anxiety was felt in regard to their safety in
 leaving the harbor, as the little barque had scarcely been able to weather
 the rough seas of Monomoy on their inward voyage. A boat had been sent out
 in search of a safer and a better roadway, which, creeping along by the
 shore sixteen or eighteen miles, returned, announcing three fathoms of
 water, and neither bars nor reefs. On the 16th of October they gave their
 canvas to the breeze, and sailed out of Stage Harbor, which they had named
 _Port Fortuné_, [55] an appellation probably suggested by their narrow
 escape in entering and by the bloody tragedy to which we have just
 referred. Having gone eighteen or twenty miles, they sighted the island of
 Martha's Vineyard lying low in the distance before them, which they called
 _La Soupçonneuse_, the suspicious one, as they had several times been in
 doubt whether it were not a part of the mainland. A contrary wind forced
 them to return to their anchorage in Stage Harbor. On the 20th they set out
 again, and continued their course in a southwesterly direction until they
 reached the entrance of Vineyard Sound. The rapid current of tide water
 flowing from Buzzard's Bay into the sound through the rocky channel between
 Nonamesset and Wood's Holl, they took to be a river coming from the
 mainland, and named it _Rivière de Champlain_.
 This point, in front of Wood's Holl, is the southern limit of the French
 explorations on the coast of New England, reached by them on the 20th of
 October, 1606.
 Encountering a strong wind, approaching a gale, they were again forced to
 return to Stage Harbor, where they lingered two or three days, awaiting
 favoring winds for their return to the colony at the bay of Annapolis.
 We regret to add that, while they were thus detained, under the very shadow
 of the cross they had recently erected, the emblem of a faith that teaches
 love and forgiveness, they decoyed, under the guise of friendship, several
 of the poor savages into their power, and inhumanly butchered them in cold
 blood. This deed was perpetrated on the base principle of _lex talionis_,
 and yet they did not know, much less were they able to prove, that their
 victims were guilty or took any part in the late affray. No form of trial
 was observed, no witnesses testified, and no judge adjudicated. It was a
 simple murder, for which we are sure any Christian's cheek would mantle
 with shame who should offer for it any defence or apology.
 When this piece of barbarity had been completed, the little French barque
 made its final exit from Stage Harbor, passed successfully round the shoals
 of Monomoy, and anchored near Nauset, where they remained a day or two,
 leaving on the 28th of October, and sailing directly to Isle Haute in
 Penobscot Bay. They made brief stops at some of the islands at the mouth of
 the St. Croix, and at the Grand Manan, and arrived at Annapolis Basin on
 the 14th of November, after an exceedingly rough passage and many
 hair-breadth escapes.
 50. On Lescarbot's map of 1609, this elevation is denominated _Mont de la
     Roque_. _Vide_ also Vol. II. note 180.
 51. Lescarbot locates Poutrincourt's fort on the same spot which he called
     _Manefort_, the site of the present village of Annapolis.
 52. "Doncques l'an 1607, tous les François estans reuenus (ainsi qu'a esté
     dict) le Sieur de Potrincourt présenta à feu d'immortelle memorie Henry
     le Grand la donnation à luy faicte par le sieur de Monts, requérant
     humblement Sa Majesté de la ratifier. Le Roy eut pour agréable la dicte
     Requeste," &c. _Relations des Jésuites_, 1611, Quebec ed., Vol. I. p.
     25. _Vide_ Vol. II. of this work, p 37.
 53. This scene is well represented on Champlain's map of _Beauport_ or
     Gloucester Harbor. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 114.
 54. _Le Port aux Huistres_, Barnstable Harbor. _Vide_ Vol. II. Note 208.
 55. _Port Fortuné_ In giving this name there was doubtless an allusion to
     the goddess FORTUNA of the ancients, whose office it was to dispense
     riches and poverty, pleasures and pains, blessings and calamities They
     had experienced good and evil at her fickle hand. They had entered the
     harbor in peril and fear, but nevertheless in safety. They had suffered
     by the attack of the savages, but fortunately had escaped utter
     annihilation, which they might well have feared. It had been to them
     eminently the port of hazard or chance. _Vide_ Vol. II Note 231 _La
     Soupçonneuse_. _Vide_ Vol. II, Note 227.
 With the voyage which we have described in the last chapter, Champlain
 terminated his explorations on the coast of New England. He never afterward
 stepped upon her soil. But he has left us, nevertheless, an invaluable
 record of the character, manners, and customs of the aborigines as he saw
 them all along from the eastern borders of Maine to the Vineyard Sound, and
 carefully studied them during the period of three consecutive years. Of the
 value of these explorations we need not here speak at length. We shall
 refer to them again in the sequel.
 The return of the explorers was hailed with joy by the colonists at
 Annapolis Basin. To give _éclat_ to the occasion, Lescarbot composed a poem
 in French, which he recited at the head of a procession which marched with
 gay representations to the water's edge, to receive their returning
 friends. Over the gateway of the quadrangle formed by their dwellings,
 dignified by them as their fort, were the arms of France, wreathed in
 laurel, together with the motto of the king.--
 Under this, the arms of De Monts were displayed, overlaid with evergreen,
 and bearing the following inscription:--
 Then came the arms of Poutrincourt, crowned also with garlands, and
 When the excitement of the return had passed, the little settlement
 subsided into its usual routine. The leisure of the winter was devoted to
 various objects bearing upon the future prosperity of the colony. Among
 others, a corn mill was erected at a fall on Allen River, four or five
 miles from the settlement, a little east of the present site of Annapolis.
 A road was commenced through the forest leading from Lower Granville
 towards the mouth of the bay. Two small barques were built, to be in
 readiness in anticipation of a failure to receive succors the next summer,
 and new buildings were erected for the accommodation of a larger number of
 colonists. Still, there was much unoccupied time, and, shut out as they
 were from the usual associations of civilized life, it was hardly possible
 that the winter should not seem long and dreary, especially to the
 To break up the monotony and add variety to the dull routine of their life,
 Champlain contrived what he called L'ORDRE DE BON TEMPS, or The Rule of
 Mirth, which was introduced and carried out with spirit and success. The
 fifteen gentlemen who sat at the table of De Poutrincourt, the governor,
 comprising the whole number of the order, took turns in performing the
 duties of steward and caterer, each holding the office for a single day.
 With a laudable ambition, the Grand Master for the time being laid the
 forest and the sea under contribution, and the table was constantly
 furnished with the most delicate and well seasoned game, and the sweetest
 as well as the choicest varieties of fish. The frequent change of office
 and the ingenuity displayed, offered at every repast, either in the viands
 or mode of cooking, something new and tempting to the appetite. At each
 meal, a ceremony becoming the dignity of the order was strictly observed.
 At a given signal, the whole company marched into the dining-hall, the
 Grand Master at the head, with his napkin over his shoulder, his staff of
 office in his hand, and the glittering collar of the order about his neck,
 while the other members bore each in his hand a dish loaded and smoking
 with some part of the delicious repast. A ceremony of a somewhat similar
 character was observed at the bringing in of the fruit. At the close of the
 day, when the last meal had been served, and grace had been said, the
 master formally completed his official duty by placing the collar of the
 order upon the neck of his successor, at the same time presenting to him a
 cup of wine, in which the two drank to each other's health and happiness.
 These ceremonies were generally witnessed by thirty or forty savages, men,
 women, boys, and girls, who gazed in respectful admiration, not to say awe,
 upon this exhibition of European civilization. When Membertou, [56] the
 venerable chief of the tribe, or other sagamores were present, they were
 invited to a seat at the table, while bread was gratuitously distributed to
 the rest.
 When the winter had passed, which proved to be an exceedingly mild one, all
 was astir in the little colony. The preparation of the soil, both in the
 gardens and in the larger fields, for the spring sowing, created an
 agreeable excitement and healthy activity.
 On the 24th May, in the midst of these agricultural enterprises, a boat
 arrived in the bay, in charge of a young man from St. Malo, named
 Chevalier, who had come out in command of the "Jonas," which he had left at
 Canseau engaged in fishing for the purpose of making up a return cargo of
 that commodity. Chevalier brought two items of intelligence of great
 interest to the colonists, but differing widely in their character. The one
 was the birth of a French prince, the Duke of Orleans; the other, that the
 company of De Monts had been broken up, his monopoly of the fur-trade
 withdrawn, and his colony ordered to return to France. The birth of a
 prince demanded expressions of joy, and the event was loyally celebrated by
 bonfires and a _Te Deum_. It was, however, giving a song when they would
 gladly have hung their harps upon the willows.
 While the scheme of De Monts's colonial enterprise was defective,
 containing in itself a principle which must sooner or later work its ruin,
 the disappointment occasioned by its sudden termination was none the less
 painful and humiliating. The monopoly on which it was based could only be
 maintained by a degree of severity and apparent injustice, which always
 creates enemies and engenders strife. The seizure and confiscation of
 several ships with their valuable cargoes on the shores of Nova Scotia, had
 awakened a personal hostility in influential circles in France, and the
 sufferers were able, in turn, to strike back a damaging blow upon the
 author of their losses. They easily and perhaps justly represented that the
 monopoly of the fur-trade secured to De Monts was sapping the national
 commerce and diverting to personal emolument revenues that properly
 belonged to the state. To an impoverished sovereign with an empty treasury
 this appeal was irresistible. The sacredness of the king's commission and
 the loss to the patentee of the property already embarked in the enterprise
 had no weight in the royal scales. De Monts's privilege was revoked, with
 the tantalizing salvo of six thousand livres in remuneration, to be
 collected at his own expense from unproductive sources.
 Under these circumstances, no money for the payment of the workmen or
 provisions for the coming winter had been sent out, and De Poutrincourt,
 with great reluctance, proceeded to break up the establishment The goods
 and utensils, as well as specimens of the grain which they had raised, were
 to be carefully packed and sent round to the harbor of Canseau, to be
 shipped by the "Jonas," together with the whole body of the colonists, as
 soon as she should have received her cargo of fish.
 While these preparations were in progress, two excursions were made; one
 towards the west, and another northeasterly towards the head of the Bay of
 Fundy. Lescarbot accompanied the former, passing several days at St. John
 and the island of St. Croix, which was the westerly limit of his
 explorations and personal knowledge of the American coast. The other
 excursion was conducted by De Poutrincourt, accompanied by Champlain, the
 object of which was to search for ores of the precious metals, a species of
 wealth earnestly coveted and overvalued at the court of France. They sailed
 along the northern shores of Nova Scotia, entered Mines Channel, and
 anchored off Cape Fendu, now Anglicised into the uneuphonious name of Cape
 Split. De Poutrincourt landed on this headland, and ascended a steep and
 lofty summit which is not less than four hundred feet in height. Moss
 several feet in thickness, the growth of centuries, had gathered upon it,
 and, when he stood upon the pinnacle, it yielded and trembled like gelatine
 under his feet. He found himself in a critical situation. From this giddy
 and unstable height he had neither the skill or courage to return. After
 much anxiety, he was at length rescued by some of his more nimble sailors,
 who managed to put a hawser over the summit, by means of which he safely
 descended. They named it _Cap de Poutrincourt_.
 They proceeded as far as the head of the Basin of Mines, but their search
 for mineral wealth was fruitless, beyond a few meagre specimens of copper.
 Their labors were chiefly rewarded by the discovery of a moss-covered cross
 in the last stages of decay, the relic of fishermen, or other Christian
 mariners, who had, years before, been upon the coast.
 The exploring parties having returned to Port Royal, to their settlement in
 what is now known as Annapolis Basin, the bulk of the colonists departed in
 three barques for Canseau, on the 30th of July, while De Poutrincourt and
 Champlain, with a complement of sailors, remained some days longer, that
 they might take with them specimens of wheat still in the field and not yet
 entirely ripe.
 On the 11th of August they likewise bade adieu to Port Royal amid the tears
 of the assembled savages, with whom they had lived in friendship, and who
 were disappointed and grieved at their departure. In passing round the
 peninsula of Nova Scotia in their little shallop, it was necessary to keep
 close in upon the shore, which enabled Champlain, who had not before been
 upon the coast east of La Hève, to make a careful survey from that point to
 Canseau, the results of which are fully stated in his notes, and delineated
 on his map of 1613.
 On the 3d of September, the "Jonas," bearing away the little French colony,
 sailed out of the harbor of Canseau, and, directing its course towards the
 shores of France, arrived at Saint Malo on the 1st of October, 1607.
 Champlain's explorations on what may be strictly called the Atlantic coast
 of North America were now completed. He had landed at La Hève in Nova
 Scotia on the 8th of May, 1604, and had consequently been in the country
 three years and nearly four months. During this period he had carefully
 examined the whole shore from Canseau, the eastern limit of Nova Scotia, to
 the Vineyard Sound on the southern boundaries of Massachusetts. This was
 the most ample, accurate, and careful survey of this region which was made
 during the whole period from the discovery of the continent in 1497 down to
 the establishment of the English colony at Plymouth in 1620. A numerous
 train of navigators had passed along the coast of New England: Sebastian
 Cabot, Estévan Gomez, Jean Alfonse, André Thevet, John Hawkins, Bartholomew
 Gosnold, Martin Pring, George Weymouth, Henry Hudson, John Smith, and the
 rest, but the knowledge of the coast which we obtain from them is
 exceedingly meagre and unsatisfactory, especially as compared with that
 contained in the full, specific, and detailed descriptions, maps, and
 drawings left us by this distinguished pioneer in the study and
 illustration of the geography of the New England coast. [57]
 The winter of 1607-8 Champlain passed in France, where he was pleasantly
 occupied in social recreations which were especially agreeable to him after
 an absence of more than three years, and in recounting to eager listeners
 his experiences in the New World. He took an early opportunity to lay
 before Monsieur de Monts the results of the explorations which he had made
 in La Cadie since the departure of the latter from Annapolis Basin in the
 autumn of 1605, illustrating his narrative by maps and drawings which he
 had prepared of the bays and harbors on the coast of Nova Scotia, New
 Brunswick, and New England.
 While most men would have been disheartened by the opposition which he
 encountered, the mind of De Monts was, nevertheless, rekindled by the
 recitals of Champlain with fresh zeal in the enterprise which he had
 undertaken. The vision of building up a vast territorial establishment,
 contemplated by his charter of 1604, with his own personal aggrandizement
 and that of his family, had undoubtedly vanished. But he clung,
 nevertheless, with extraordinary tenacity to his original purpose of
 planting a colony in the New World. This he resolved to do in the face of
 many obstacles, and notwithstanding the withdrawment of the royal
 protection and bounty. The generous heart of Henry IV. was by no means
 insensible to the merits of his faithful subject, and, on his solicitation,
 he granted to him letters-patent for the exclusive right of trade in
 America, but for the space only of a single year. With this small boon from
 the royal hand, De Monts hastened to fit out two vessels for the
 expedition. One was to be commanded by Pont Gravé, who was to devote his
 undivided attention to trade with the Indians for furs and peltry; the
 other was to convey men and material for a colonial plantation.
 Champlain, whose energy, zeal, and prudence had impressed themselves upon
 the mind of De Monts, was appointed lieutenant of the expedition, and
 intrusted with the civil administration, having a sufficient number of men
 for all needed defence against savage intruders, Basque fisher men, or
 interloping fur-traders.
 On the 13th of April, 1608, Champlain left the port of Honfleur, and
 arrived at the harbor of Tadoussac on the 3d of June. Here he found Pont
 Gravé, who had preceded him by a few days in the voyage, in trouble with a
 Basque fur-trader. The latter had persisted in carrying on his traffic,
 notwithstanding the royal commission to the contrary, and had succeeded in
 disabling Pont Gravé, who had but little power of resistance, killing one
 of his men, seriously wounding Pont Gravé himself, as well as several
 others, and had forcibly taken possession of his whole armament.
 When Champlain had made full inquiries into all the circumstances, he saw
 clearly that the difficulty must be compromised; that the exercise of force
 in overcoming the intruding Basque would effectually break up his plans for
 the year, and bring utter and final ruin upon his undertaking. He wisely
 decided to pocket the insult, and let justice slumber for the present. He
 consequently required the Basque, who began to see more clearly the
 illegality of his course, to enter into a written agreement with Pont Gravé
 that neither should interfere with the other while they remained in the
 country, and that they should leave their differences to be settled in the
 courts on their return to France.
 Having thus poured oil upon the troubled waters, Champlain proceeded to
 carry out his plans for the location and establishment of his colony. The
 difficult navigation of the St. Lawrence above Tadoussac was well known to
 him. The dangers of its numberless rocks, sand-bars, and fluctuating
 channels had been made familiar to him by the voyage of 1603. He
 determined, therefore, to leave his vessel in the harbor of Tadoussac, and
 construct a small barque of twelve or fourteen tons, in which to ascend the
 river and fix upon a place of settlement.
 While the work was in progress, Champlain reconnoitred the neighborhood,
 collecting much geographical information from the Indians relating to Lake
 St. John and a traditionary salt sea far to the north, exploring the
 Saguenay for some distance, of which he has given us a description so
 accurate and so carefully drawn that it needs little revision after the
 lapse of two hundred and seventy years.
 On the last of June, the barque was completed, and Champlain, with a
 complement of men and material, took his departure. As he glided along in
 his little craft, he was exhilarated by the fragrance of the atmosphere,
 the bright coloring of the foliage, the bold, picturesque scenery that
 constantly revealed itself on both sides of the river. The lofty mountains,
 the expanding valleys, the luxuriant forests, the bold headlands, the
 enchanting little bays and inlets, and the numerous tributaries bursting
 into the broad waters of the St. Lawrence, were all carefully examined and
 noted in his journal. The expedition seemed more like a holiday excursion
 than the grave prelude to the founding of a city to be renowned in the
 history of the continent.
 On the fourth day, they approached the site of the present city of Quebec.
 The expanse of the river had hitherto been from eight to thirteen miles.
 Here a lofty headland, approaching from the interior, advances upon the
 river and forces it into a narrow channel of three-fourths of a mile in
 width. The river St. Charles, a small stream flowing from the northwest,
 uniting here with the St. Lawrence, forms a basin below the promontory,
 spreading out two miles in one direction and four in another. The rocky
 headland, jutting out upon the river, rises up nearly perpendicularly, and
 to a height of three hundred and forty-five feet, commanding from its
 summit a view of water, forest and mountain of surpassing grandeur and
 beauty. A narrow belt of fertile land formed by the crumbling _débris_ of
 ages, stretches along between the water's edge and the base of the
 precipice, and was then covered with a luxurious growth of nut-trees. The
 magnificent basin below, the protecting wall of the headland in the rear,
 the deep water of the river in front, rendered this spot peculiarly
 attractive. Here on this narrow plateau, Champlain resolved to place his
 settlement, and forthwith began the work of felling trees, excavating
 cellars, and constructing houses.
 On the 3d day of July, 1608, Champlain laid the foundation of Quebec. The
 name which he gave to it had been applied to it by the savages long before.
 It is derived from the Algonquin word _quebio_, or _quebec_, signifying a
 _narrowing_, and was descriptive of the form which the river takes at that
 place, to which we have already referred.
 A few days after their arrival, an event occurred of exciting interest to
 Champlain and his little colony. One of their number, Jean du Val, an
 abandoned wretch, who possessed a large share of that strange magnetic
 power which some men have over the minds of others, had so skilfully
 practised upon the credulity of his comrades that he had drawn them all
 into a scheme which, aside from its atrocity, was weak and ill-contrived at
 every point It was nothing less than a plan to assassinate Champlain, seize
 the property belonging to the expedition, and sell it to the Basque
 fur-traders at Tadoussac, under the hallucination that they should be
 enriched by the pillage. They had even entered into a solemn compact, and
 whoever revealed the secret was to be visited by instant death. Their
 purpose was to seize Champlain in an unguarded moment and strangle him, or
 to shoot him in the confusion of a false alarm to be raised in the night by
 themselves. But before the plan was fully ripe for execution, a barque
 unexpectedly arrived from Tadoussac with an instalment of utensils and
 provisions for the colony. One of the men, Antoine Natel, who had entered
 into the conspiracy with reluctance, and had been restrained from a
 disclosure by fear, summoned courage to reveal the plot to the pilot of the
 boat, first securing from him the assurance that he should be shielded from
 the vengeance of his fellow-conspirators. The secret was forthwith made
 known to Champlain, who, by a stroke of finesse, placed himself beyond
 danger before he slept. At his suggestion, the four leading spirits of the
 plot were invited by one of the sailors to a social repast on the barque,
 at which two bottles of wine which he pretended had been given him at
 Tadoussac were to be uncorked. In the midst of the festivities, the "four
 worthy heads of the conspiracy," as Champlain satirically calls them, were
 suddenly clapped into irons. It was now late in the evening, but Champlain
 nevertheless summoned all the rest of the men into his presence, and
 offered them a full pardon, on condition that they would disclose the whole
 scheme and the motives which had induced them to engage in it. This they
 were eager to do, as they now began to comprehend the dangerous compact
 into which they had entered, and the peril which threatened their own
 lives. These preliminary investigations rendered it obvious to Champlain
 that grave consequences must follow, and he therefore proceeded with great
 The next day, he took the depositions of the pardoned men, carefully
 reducing them to writing. He then departed for Tadoussac, taking the four
 conspirators with him. On consultation, he decided to leave them there,
 where they could be more safely guarded until. Pont Gravé and the principal
 men of the expedition could return with them to Quebec, where he proposed
 to give them a more public and formal trial. This was accordingly done. The
 prisoners were duly confronted with the witnesses. They denied nothing, but
 freely admitted their guilt. With the advice and concurrence of Pont Gravé,
 the pilot, surgeon, mate, boatswain, and others, Champlain condemned the
 four conspirators to be hung; three of them, however, to be sent home for a
 confirmation or revision of their sentence by the authorities in France,
 while the sentence of Jean Du Val, the arch-plotter of the malicious
 scheme, was duly executed in their presence, with all the solemn forms and
 ceremonies usual on such occasions. Agreeably to a custom of that period,
 the ghastly head of Du Val was elevated on the highest pinnacle of the fort
 at Quebec, looking down and uttering its silent warning to the busy
 colonists below; the grim Signal to all beholders, that "the way of the
 transgressor is hard."
 The catastrophe, had not the plot been nipped in the bud, would have been
 sure to take place. The final purpose of the conspirators might not have
 been realized; it must have been defeated at a later stage; but the hand of
 Du Val, prompted by a malignant nature, was nerved to strike a fatal blow,
 and the life of Champlain would have been sacrificed at the opening of the
 tragic scene.
 The punishment of Du Val, in its character and degree, was not only
 agreeable to the civil policy of the age, but was necessary for the
 protection of life and the maintenance of order and discipline in the
 colony. A conspiracy on land, under the present circumstances, was as
 dangerous as a mutiny at sea; and the calm, careful, and dignified
 procedure of Champlain in firmly visiting upon the criminal a severe though
 merited punishment, reveals the wisdom, prudence, and humanity which were
 prominent elements in his mental and moral constitution.
 56. _Membertou_. See Pierre Biard's account of his death in 1611.
     _Relations des Jésuites_. Quebec ed, Vol. I. p. 32.
 57. Had the distinguished navigators who early visited the coasts of North
     America illustrated their narratives by drawings and maps, it would
     have added greatly to their value. Capt. John Smith's map, though
     necessarily indefinite and general, is indispensable to the
     satisfactory study of his still more indefinite "Description of New
     England." It is, perhaps, a sufficient apology for the vagueness of
     Smith's statements, and therefore it ought to be borne in mind, that
     his work was originally written, probably, from memory, at least for
     the most part, while he was a prisoner on board a French man-of-war in
     1615. This may be inferred from the following statement of Smith
     himself. In speaking of the movement of the French fleet, he says:
     "Still we spent our time about the Iles neere _Fyall_: where to keepe
     my perplexed thoughts from too much meditation of my miserable estate,
     I writ this discourse" _Vide Description of New England_ by Capt. John
     Smith, London, 1616.
     While the descriptions of our coast left by Champlain are invaluable to
     the historian and cannot well be overestimated, the process of making
     these surveys, with his profound love of such explorations and
     adventures, must have given him great personal satisfaction and
     enjoyment It would be difficult to find any region of similar extent
     that could offer, on a summer's excursion, so much beauty to his eager
     and critical eye as this. The following description of the Gulf of
     Maine, which comprehends the major part of the field surveyed by
     Champlain, that lying between the headlands of Cape Sable and Cape Cod,
     gives an excellent idea of the infinite variety and the unexpected and
     marvellous beauties that are ever revealing themselves to the voyager
     as he passes along our coast.--
     "This shoreland is also remarkable, being so battered and frayed by sea
     and storm, and worn perhaps by arctic currents and glacier beds, that
     its natural front of some 250 miles is multiplied to an extent of not
     less than 2,500 miles of salt-water line; while at an average distance
     of about three miles from the mainland, stretches a chain of outposts
     consisting of more than three hundred islands, fragments of the main,
     striking in their diversity on the west; low, wooded and grassy to the
     water's edge, and rising eastward through bolder types to the crowns
     and cliffs of Mount Desert and Quoddy Head, an advancing series from
     beauty to sublimity: and behind all these are deep basins and broad
     river-mouths, affording convenient and spacious harbors, in many of
     which the navies of nations might safely ride at anchor.... Especially
     attractive was the region between the Piscataqua and Penobscot in its
     marvellous beauty of shore and sea, of island and inlet, of bay and
     river and harbor, surpassing any other equally extensive portion of the
     Atlantic coast, and compared by travellers earliest and latest, with
     the famed archipelago of the Aegean." _Vide Maine, Her Place in
     History_, by Joshua L. Chamberlain, LL D, President of Bowdoin College,
     Augusta, 1877, pp. 4-5.
 On the 18th of September, 1608, Pont Gravé, having obtained his cargo of
 furs and peltry, sailed for France.
 The autumn was fully occupied by Champlain and his little band of colonists
 in completing the buildings and in making such other provisions as were
 needed against the rigors of the approaching winter. From the forest trees
 beams were hewed into shape with the axe, boards and plank were cut from
 the green wood with the saw, walls were reared from the rough stones
 gathered at the base of the cliff, and plots of land were cleared near the
 settlement, where wheat and rye were sown and grapevines planted, which
 successfully tested the good qualities of the soil and climate.
 Three lodging-houses were erected on the northwest angle formed by the
 junction of the present streets St. Peter and Sous le Fort, near or on the
 site of the Church of Notre Dame. Adjoining, was a store-house. The whole
 was, surrounded by a moat fifteen feet wide and six feet deep, thus giving
 the settlement the character of a fort; a wise precaution against a sudden
 attack of the treacherous savages. [58]
 At length the sunny days of autumn were gone, and the winter, with its
 fierce winds and its penetrating frosts and deep banks of snow, was upon
 them. Little occupation could be furnished for the twenty-eight men that
 composed the colony. Their idleness soon brought a despondency that hung
 like a pall upon their spirits. In February, disease made its approach. It
 had not been expected. Every defence within their knowledge had been
 provided against it. Their houses were closely sealed and warm; their
 clothing was abundant; their food nutritious and plenty. But a diet too
 exclusively of salt meat had, notwithstanding, in the opinion of Champlain,
 and we may add the want, probably, of exercise and the presence of bad air,
 induced the _mal de la terre_ or scurvy, and it made fearful havoc with his
 men. Twenty, five out of each seven of their whole number, had been carried
 to their graves before the middle of April, and half of the remaining eight
 had been attacked by the loathsome scourge.
 While the mind of Champlain was oppressed by the suffering and death that
 were at all times present in their abode, his sympathies were still further
 taxed by the condition of the savages, who gathered in great numbers about
 the settlement, in the most abject misery and in the last stages of
 starvation. As Champlain could only furnish them, from his limited stores,
 temporary and partial relief, it was the more painful to see them slowly
 dragging their feeble frames about in the snow, gathering up and devouring
 with avidity discarded meat in which the process of decomposition was far
 advanced, and which was already too potent with the stench of decay to be
 approached by his men.
 Beyond the ravages of disease [59] and the starving Indians, Champlain adds
 nothing more to complete the gloomy picture of his first winter in Quebec.
 The gales of wind that swept round the wall of precipice that protected
 them in the rear, the drifts of snow that were piled up in fresh
 instalments with every storm about their dwelling, the biting frost, more
 piercing and benumbing than they had ever experienced before, the unceasing
 groans of the sick within, the semi-weekly procession bearing one after
 another of their diminishing numbers to the grave, the mystery that hung
 over the disease, and the impotency of all remedies, we know were prominent
 features in the picture. But the imagination seeks in vain for more than a
 single circumstance that could throw upon it a beam of modifying and
 softening light, and that was the presence of the brave Champlain, who bore
 all without a murmur, and, we may be sure, without a throb of unmanly fear
 or a sensation of cowardly discontent.
 But the winter, as all winters do, at length melted reluctantly away, and
 the spring came with its verdure, and its new life. The spirits of the
 little remnant of a colony began to revive. Eight of the twenty-eight with
 which the winter began were still surviving. Four had escaped attack, and
 four were rejoicing convalescents.
 On the 5th of June, news came that Pont Gravé had arrived from France, and
 was then at Tadoussac, whither Champlain immediately repaired to confer
 with him, and particularly to make arrangements at the earliest possible
 moment for an exploring expedition into the interior, an undertaking which
 De Monts had enjoined upon him, and which was not only agreeable to his own
 wishes, but was a kind of enterprise which had been a passion with him from
 his youth.
 In anticipation of a tour of exploration during the approaching summer,
 Champlain had already ascertained from the Indians that, lying far to the
 southwest, was an extensive lake, famous among the savages, containing many
 fair islands, and surrounded by a beautiful and productive country. Having
 expressed a desire to visit this region, the Indians readily offered to act
 as guides, provided, nevertheless, that he would aid them in a warlike raid
 upon their enemies, the Iroquois, the tribe known to us as the Mohawks,
 whose, homes were beyond the lake in question. Champlain without hesitation
 acceded to the condition exacted, but with little appreciation, as we
 confidently believe, of the bitter consequences that were destined to
 follow the alliance thus inaugurated; from which, in after years, it was
 inexpedient, if not impossible, to recede.
 Having fitted out a shallop, Champlain left Quebec on his tour of
 exploration on the 18th of June, 1609, with eleven men, together with a
 party of Montagnais, a tribe of Indians who, in their hunting and fishing
 excursions, roamed over an indefinite region on the north side of the St.
 Lawrence, but whose headquarters were at Tadoussac. After ascending the St
 Lawrence about sixty miles, he came upon an encampment of two hundred or
 three hundred savages, Hurons [60] and Algonquins, the former dwelling on
 the borders of the lake of the same name, the latter on the upper waters of
 the Ottawa. They had learned something of the French from a son of one of
 their chiefs, who had been at Quebec the preceding autumn, and were now on
 their way to enter into an alliance with the French against the Iroquois.
 After formal negotiations and a return to Quebec to visit the French
 settlement and witness the effect of their firearms, of which they had
 heard and which greatly excited their curiosity, and after the usual
 ceremonies of feasting and dancing, the whole party proceeded up the river
 until they reached the mouth of the Richelieu. Here they remained two days,
 as guests of the Indians, feasting upon fish, venison, and water-fowl.
 While these festivities were in progress, a disagreement arose among the
 savages, and the bulk of them, including the women, returned to their
 homes. Sixty warriors, however, some from each of the three allied tribes,
 proceeded up the Richelieu with Champlain. At the Falls of Chambly, finding
 it impossible for the shallop to pass them, he directed the pilot to return
 with it to Quebec, leaving only two men from the crew to accompany him on
 the remainder of the expedition. From this point, Champlain and his two
 brave companions entrusted themselves to the birch canoe of the savages.
 For a short distance, the canoes, twenty-four in all, were transported by
 land. The fall and rapids, extending as far as St. John, were at length
 passed. They then proceeded up the river, and, entering the lake which now
 bears the name of Champlain, crept along the western bank, advancing after
 the first few days only in the night, hiding themselves during the day in
 the thickets on the shore to avoid the observation of their enemies, whom
 they were now liable at any moment to meet.
 On the evening of the 29th of July, at about ten o'clock, when the allies
 were gliding noiselessly along in restrained silence, as they approached
 the little cape that juts out into the lake at Ticonderoga, near where Fort
 Carillon was afterwards erected by the French, and where its ruins are
 still to be seen, [61] they discovered a flotilla of heavy canoes, of oaken
 bark, containing not far from two hundred Iroquois warriors, armed and
 impatient for conflict. A furor and frenzy as of so many enraged tigers
 instantly seized both parties. Champlain and his allies withdrew a short
 distance, an arrow's range from the shore, fastening their canoes by poles
 to keep them together, while the Iroquois hastened to the water's edge,
 drew up their canoes side by side, and began to fell trees and construct a
 barricade, which they were well able to accomplish with marvellous facility
 and skill. Two boats were sent out to inquire if the Iroquois desired to
 fight, to which they replied that they wanted nothing so much, and, as it
 was now dark, at sunrise the next morning they would give them battle. The
 whole night was spent by both parties in loud and tumultuous boasting,
 berating each other in the roundest terms which their savage vocabulary
 could furnish, insultingly charging each other with cowardice and weakness,
 and declaring that they would prove the truth of their assertions to their
 utter ruin the next morning.
 When the sun began to gild the distant mountain-tops, the combatants were
 ready for the fray. Champlain and his two companions, each lying low in
 separate canoes of the Montagnais, put on, as best they could, the light
 armor in use at that period, and, taking the short hand-gun, or arquebus,
 went on shore, concealing themselves as much as possible from the enemy. As
 soon as all had landed, the two parties hastily approached each other,
 moving with a firm and determined tread. The allies, who had become fully
 aware of the deadly character of the hand-gun and were anxious to see an
 exhibition of its mysterious power, promptly opened their ranks, and
 Champlain marched forward in front, until he was within thirty paces of the
 Iroquois. When they saw him, attracted by his pale face and strange armor,
 they halted and gazed at him in a calm bewilderment for some seconds. Three
 Iroquois chiefs, tall and athletic, stood in front, and could be easily
 distinguished by the lofty plumes that waved above their heads. They began
 at once to make ready for a discharge of arrows. At the same instant,
 Champlain, perceiving this movement, levelled his piece, which had been
 loaded with four balls, and two chiefs fell dead, and another savage was
 mortally wounded by the same shot. At this, the allies raised a shout
 rivalling thunder in its stunning effect. From both sides the whizzing
 arrows filled the air. The two French arquebusiers, from their ambuscade in
 the thicket, immediately attacked in flank, pouring a deadly fire upon the
 enemy's right. The explosion of the firearms, altogether new to the
 Iroquois, the fatal effects that instantly followed, their chiefs lying
 dead at their feet and others fast falling, threw them into a tumultuous
 panic. They at once abandoned every thing, arms, provisions, boats, and
 camp, and without any impediment, the naked savages fled through the forest
 with the fleetness of the terrified deer. Champlain and his allies pursued
 them a mile and a half, or to the first fall in the little stream that
 connects Lake Champlain [62] and Lake George. [63] The victory was
 complete. The allies gathered at the scene of conflict, danced and sang in
 triumph, collected and appropriated the abandoned armor, feasted on the
 provisions left by the Iroquois, and, within three hours, with ten or
 twelve prisoners, were sailing down the lake on their homeward voyage.
 After they had rowed about eight leagues, according to Champlain's
 estimate, they encamped for the night. A prevailing characteristic of the
 savages on the eastern coast, in the early history of America, was the
 barbarous cruelties which they inflicted upon their prisoners of war. [64]
 They did not depart from their usual custom in the present instance. Having
 kindled a fire, they selected a victim, and proceeded to excoriate his back
 with red-hot burning brands, and to apply live coals to the ends of his
 fingers, where they would give the most exquisite pain. They tore out his
 finger-nails, and, with sharp slivers of wood, pierced his wrists and
 rudely forced out the quivering sinews. They flayed off the skin from the
 top of his head, [65] and poured upon the bleeding wound a stream of
 boiling melted gum. Champlain remonstrated in vain. The piteous cries of
 the poor, tormented victim excited his unavailing compassion, and he turned
 away in anger and disgust. At length, when these inhuman tortures had been
 carried as far as they desired, Champlain was permitted, at his earnest
 request, with a musket-shot to put an end to his sufferings. But this was
 not the termination of the horrid performance. The dead victim was hacked
 in pieces, his heart severed into parts, and the surviving prisoners were
 ordered to eat it. This was too revolting to their nature, degraded as it
 was; they were forced, however, to take it into their mouths, but they
 would do no more, and their guard of more compassionate Algonquins allowed
 them to cast it into the lake.
 This exhibition of savage cruelty was not extraordinary, but according to
 their usual custom. It was equalled, and, if possible, even surpassed, in
 the treatment of captives generally, and especially of the Jesuit
 missionaries in after years. [66]
 When the party arrived at the Falls of Chambly, the Hurons and Algonquins
 left the river, in order to reach their homes by a shorter way,
 transporting their canoes and effects over land to the St. Lawrence near
 Montreal, while the rest continued their journey down the Richelieu and the
 St. Lawrence to Tadoussac, where their families were encamped, waiting to
 join in the usual ceremonies and rejoicings after a great victory.
 When the returning warriors approached Tadoussac, they hung aloft on the
 prow of their canoes the scalped heads of those whom they had slain,
 decorated with beads which they had begged from the French for this
 purpose, and with a savage grace presented these ghastly trophies to their
 wives and daughters, who, laying aside their garments, eagerly swam out to
 obtain the precious mementoes, which they hung about their necks and bore
 rejoicing to the shore, where they further testified their satisfaction by
 dancing and singing.
 After a few days, Champlain repaired to Quebec, and early in September
 decided to return with Pont Gravé to France. All arrangements were speedily
 made for that purpose. Fifteen men were left to pass the winter at Quebec,
 in charge of Captain Pierre Chavin of Dieppe. On the 5th of September they
 sailed from Tadoussac, and, lingering some days at Isle Percé, arrived at
 Honfleur on the 13th of October, 1609.
 Champlain hastened immediately to Fontainebleau, to make a detailed report
 of his proceedings to Sieur de Monts, who was there in official attendance
 upon the king. [67] On this occasion he sought an audience also with Henry
 IV., who had been his friend and patron from the time of his first voyage
 to Canada in 1603. In addition to the new discoveries and observations
 which he detailed to him, he exhibited a belt curiously wrought and inlaid
 with porcupine-quills, the work of the savages, which especially drew forth
 the king's admiration. He also presented two specimens of the scarlet
 tanager, _Pyranga rubra_, a bird of great brilliancy of plumage and
 peculiar to this continent, and likewise the head of a gar-pike, a fish of
 singular characteristics, then known only in the waters of Lake Champlain.
 At this time De Monts was urgently seeking a renewal of his commission for
 the monopoly of the fur-trade. In this Champlain was deeply interested. But
 to this monopoly a powerful opposition arose, and all efforts at renewal
 proved utterly fruitless. De Monts did not, however, abandon the enterprise
 on which he had entered. Renewing his engagements with the merchants of
 Rouen with whom he had already been associated, he resolved to send out in
 the early spring, as a private enterprise and without any special
 privileges or monopoly, two vessels with the necessary equipments for
 strengthening his colony at Quebec and for carrying on trade as usual with
 the Indians.
 Champlain was again appointed lieutenant, charged with the government and
 management of the colony, with the expectation of passing the next winter
 at Quebec, while Pont Gravé, as he had been before, was specially entrusted
 with the commercial department of the expedition.
 They embarked at Honfleur, but were detained in the English Channel by bad
 weather for some days. In the mean time Champlain was taken seriously ill,
 the vessel needed additional ballast, and returned to port, and they did
 not finally put to sea till the 8th of April. They arrived at Tadoussac on
 the 26th of the same month, in the year 1610, and, two days later, sailed
 for Quebec, where they found the commander, Captain Chavin, and the little
 colony all in excellent health.
 The establishment at Quebec, it is to be remembered, was now a private
 enterprise. It existed by no chartered rights, it was protected by no
 exclusive authority. There was consequently little encouragement for its
 enlargement beyond what was necessary as a base of commercial operations.
 The limited cares of the colony left, therefore, to Champlain, a larger
 scope for the exercise of his indomitable desire for exploration and
 adventure. Explorations could not, however, be carried forward without the
 concurrence and guidance of the savages by whom he was immediately
 surrounded. Friendly relations existed between the French and the united
 tribes of Montagnais, Hurons, and Algonquins, who occupied the northern
 shores of the St. Lawrence and the great lakes. A burning hatred existed
 between these tribes and the Iroquois, occupying the southern shores of the
 same river. A deadly warfare was their chief employment, and every summer
 each party was engaged either in repelling an invasion or in making one in
 the territory of the other. Those friendly to Champlain were quite ready to
 act as pioneers in his explorations and discoveries, but they expected and
 demanded in return that he should give them active personal assistance in
 their wars. Influenced, doubtless, by policy, the spirit of the age, and
 his early education in the civil conflicts of France, Champlain did not
 hesitate to enter into an alliance and an exchange of services on these
 In the preceding year, two journeys into distant regions had been planned
 for exploration and discovery. One beginning at Three Rivers, was to
 survey, under the guidance of the Montagnais, the river St. Maurice to its
 source, and thence, by different channels and portages, reach Lake St.
 John, returning by the Saguenay, making in the circuit a distance of not
 less than eight hundred miles. The other plan was to explore, under the
 direction of the Hurons and Algonquins, the vast country over which they
 were accustomed to roam, passing up the Ottawa, and reaching in the end the
 region of the copper mines on Lake Superior, a journey not less than twice
 the extent of the former.
 Neither of these explorations could be undertaken the present year. Their
 importance, however, to the future progress of colonization in New France
 is sufficiently obvious. The purpose of making these surveys shows the
 breadth and wisdom of Champlain's views, and that hardships or dangers were
 not permitted to interfere with his patriotic sense of duty.
 Soon after his arrival at Quebec, the savages began to assemble to engage
 in their usual summer's entertainment of making war upon the Iroquois.
 Sixty Montagnais, equipped in their rude armor, were hastening to the
 rendezvous which, by agreement made the year before, was to be at the mouth
 of the Richelieu. [69] Hither were to come the three allied tribes, and
 pass together up this river into Lake Champlain, the "gate" or war-path
 through which these hostile clans were accustomed to make their yearly
 pilgrimage to meet each other in deadly conflict. Sending forward four
 barques for trading purposes, Champlain repaired to the mouth of the
 Richelieu, and landed, in company with the Montagnais, on the Island St.
 Ignace, on the 19th of June. While preparations were making to receive
 their Algonquin allies from the region of the Ottawa, news came that they
 had already arrived, and that they had discovered a hundred Iroquois
 strongly barricaded in a log fort, which they had hastily thrown together
 on the brink of the river not far distant, and to capture them the
 assistance of all parties was needed without delay. Champlain, with four
 Frenchmen and the sixty Montagnais, left the island in haste, passed over
 to the mainland, where they left their canoes, and eagerly rushed through
 the marshy forest a distance of two miles. Burdened with their heavy armor,
 half consumed by mosquitoes which were so thick that they were scarcely
 able to breathe, covered with mud and water, they at length stood before
 the Iroquois fort. [70] It was a structure of logs laid one upon another,
 braced and held together by posts coupled by withes, and of the usual
 circular form. It offered a good protection in savage warfare. Even the
 French arquebus discharged through the crevices did slow execution.
 It was obvious to Champlain that, to ensure victory, the fort must be
 demolished. Huge trees, severed at the base, falling upon it, did not break
 it down. At length, directed by Champlain, the savages approached under
 their shields, tore away the supporting posts, and thus made a breach, into
 which rushed the infuriated besiegers, and in hot haste finished their
 deadly work. Fifteen of the Iroquois were taken prisoners; a few plunged
 into the river and were drowned; the rest perished by musket-shots,
 arrow-wounds, the tomahawk, and the war-club. Of the allied savages three
 were killed and fifty wounded. Champlain himself did not escape altogether
 unharmed. An arrow, armed with a sharp point of stone, pierced his ear and
 neck, which he drew out with his own hand. One of his companions received a
 similar wound in the arm. The victors scalped the dead as usual,
 ornamenting the prows of their canoes with the bleeding heads of their
 enemies, while they severed one of the bodies into quarters, to eat, as
 they alleged, in revenge.
 The canoes of the savages and a French shallop having come to the scene of
 this battle, all soon embarked and returned to the Island of St. Ignace.
 Here the allies, joined by eighty Huron warriors who had arrived too late
 to participate in the conflict, remained three days, celebrating their
 victory by dancing, singing, and the administration of the usual punishment
 upon their prisoners of war. This consisted in a variety of exquisite
 tortures, similar to those inflicted the year before, after the victory on
 Lake Champlain, horrible and sickening in all their features, and which
 need not be spread upon these pages. From these tortures Champlain would
 gladly have snatched the poor wretches, had it been in his power, but in
 this matter the savages would brook no interference. There was a solitary
 exception, however, in a fortunate young Iroquois who fell to him in the
 division of prisoners. He was treated with great kindness, but it did not
 overcome his excessive fear and distrust, and he soon sought an opportunity
 and escaped to his home. [71]
 When the celebration of the victory had been completed, the Indians
 departed to their distant abodes. Champlain, however, before their
 departure, very wisely entered into an agreement that they should receive
 for the winter a young Frenchman who was anxious to learn their language,
 and, in return, he was himself to take a young Huron, at their special
 request, to pass the winter in France. This judicious arrangement, in which
 Champlain was deeply interested and which he found some difficulty in
 accomplishing, promised an important future advantage in extending the
 knowledge of both parties, and in strengthening on the foundation of
 personal experience their mutual confidence and friendship.
 After the departure of the Indians, Champlain returned to Quebec, and
 proceeded to put the buildings in repair and to see that all necessary
 arrangements were made for the safety and comfort of the colony during the
 next winter.
 On the 4th of July, Des Marais, in charge of the vessel belonging to De
 Monts and his company, which had been left behind and had been expected
 soon to follow, arrived at Quebec, bringing the intelligence that a small
 revolution had taken place in Brouage, the home of Champlain, that the
 Protestants had been expelled, and an additional guard of soldiers had been
 placed in the garrison. Des Marais also brought the startling news that
 Henry IV. had been assassinated on the 14th of May. Champlain was
 penetrated by this announcement with the deepest sorrow. He fully saw how
 great a public calamity had fallen upon his country. France had lost, by an
 ignominious blow, one of her ablest and wisest sovereigns, who had, by his
 marvellous power, gradually united and compacted the great interests of the
 nation, which had been shattered and torn by half a century of civil
 conflicts and domestic feuds. It was also to him a personal loss. The king
 had taken a special interest in his undertakings, had been his patron from
 the time of his first voyage to New France in 1603, had sustained him by an
 annual pension, and on many occasions had shown by word and deed that he
 fully appreciated the great value of his explorations in his American
 domains. It was difficult to see how a loss so great both to his country
 and himself could be repaired. A cloud of doubt and uncertainty hung over
 the future. The condition of the company, likewise, under whose auspices he
 was acting, presented at this time no very encouraging features. The
 returns from the fur-trade had been small, owing to the loss of the
 monopoly which the company had formerly enjoyed, and the excessive
 competition which free-trade had stimulated. Only a limited attention had
 as yet been given to the cultivation of the soil. Garden vegetables had
 been placed in cultivation, together with small fields of Indian corn,
 wheat, rye, and barley. These attempts at agriculture were doubtless
 experiments, while at the fame time they were useful in supplementing the
 stores needed for the colony's consumption.
 Champlain's personal presence was not required at Quebec during the winter,
 as no active enterprise could be carried forward in that inclement season,
 and he decided, therefore, to return to France. The little colony now
 consisted of sixteen men, which he placed in charge, during his absence, of
 Sieur Du Parc. He accordingly left Tadoussac on the 13th of August, and
 arrived at Honfleur in France on the 27th of September, 1610.
 During the autumn of this year, while residing in Paris, Champlain became
 attached to Hélène Boullé, the daughter of Nicholas Boullé, secretary of
 the king's chamber. She was at that time a mere child, and of too tender
 years to act for herself, particularly in matters of so great importance as
 those which relate to marital relations. However, agreeably to a custom not
 infrequent at that period, a marriage contract [72] was entered into on the
 27th of December with her parents, in which, nevertheless, it was
 stipulated that the nuptials should not take place within at least two
 years from that date. The dowry of the future bride was fixed at six
 thousand livres _tournois_, three fourths of which were paid and receipted
 for by Champlain two days after the signing of the contract. The marriage
 was afterward consummated, and Helen Boullé, as his wife, accompanied
 Champlain to Quebec, in 1620, as we shall see in the sequel.
 Notwithstanding the discouragements of the preceding year and the small
 prospect of future success, De Monts and the merchants associated with him
 still persevered in sending another expedition, and Champlain left Honfleur
 for New France on the first day of March, 1611. Unfortunately, the voyage
 had been undertaken too early in the season for these northern waters, and
 long before they reached the Grand Banks, they encountered ice-floes of the
 most dangerous character. Huge blocks of crystal, towering two hundred feet
 above the surface of the water, floated at times near them, and at others
 they were surrounded and hemmed in by vast fields of ice extending as far
 as the eye could reach. Amid these ceaseless perils, momentarily expecting
 to be crushed between the floating islands wheeling to and fro about them,
 they struggled with the elements for nearly two months, when finally they
 reached Tadoussac on the 13th of May.
 58. The situation of Quebec and an engraved representation of the buildings
     may be seen by reference to Vol. II. pp. 175, 183.
 59. Scurvy, or _mal de la terre_.--_Vide_ Vol. II. note 105.
 60. _Hurons_ "The word Huron comes from the French, who seeing these
     Indians with the hair cut very short, and standing up in a strange
     fashion, giving them a fearful air, cried out, the first time they saw
     them, _Quelle hures!_ what boars' heads! and so got to call them
     Hurons."--Charlevoix's _His. New France_, Shea's Trans Vol. II. p. 71.
     _Vide Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed. Vol. I. 1639, P 51; also note
     321, Vol. II. of this work, for brief notice of the Algonquins and
     other tribes.
 61. For the identification of the site of this battle, see Vol. II p. 223,
     note 348. It is eminently historical ground. Near it Fort Carrillon was
     erected by the French in 1756. Here Abercrombie was defeated by
     Montcalm in 1758. Lord Amherst captured the fort in 1759 Again it was
     taken from the English by the patriot Ethan Alien in 1775. It was
     evacuated by St. Clair when environed by Burgoyne in 1777, and now for
     a complete century it has been visited by the tourist as a ruin
     memorable for its many historical associations.
 62. This lake, discovered and explored by Champlain, is ninety miles in
     length. Through its centre runs the boundary line between the State of
     New York and that of Vermont. From its discovery to the present time it
     has appropriately borne the honored name of Champlain. For its Indian
     name, _Caniaderiguarunte_, see Vol. II. note 349. According to Mr. Shea
     the Mohawk name of Lake Champlain is _Caniatagaronte_.--_Vide Shea's
     Charlevoix_. Vol. II. p. 18.
     Lake Champlain and the Hudson River were both discovered the same year,
     and were severally named after the distinguished navigators by whom
     they were explored. Champlain completed his explorations at
     Ticonderoga, on the 30th of July, 1609, and Hudson reached the highest
     point made by him on the river, near Albany, on the 22d of September of
     the same year.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p. 219. Also _The Third Voyage of
     Master Henry Hudson_, written by Robert Ivet of Lime-house,
     _Collections of New York His. Society_, Vol. I. p. 140.
 63. _Lake George_. The Jesuit Father, Isaac Jogues, having been summoned in
     1646 to visit the Mohawks, to attend to the formalities of ratifying a
     treaty of peace which had been concluded with them, passing by canoe up
     the Richelieu, through Lake Champlain, and arriving at the end of Lake
     George on the 29th of May, the eve of Corpus Christi, a festival
     celebrated by the Roman Church on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday, in
     honor of the Holy Eucharist or the Lord's Supper, named this lake LAC
     DU SAINT SACREMENT. The following is from the Jesuit Relation of 1646
     by Pere Hierosme Lalemant. Ils arriuèrent la veille du S. Sacrement au
     bout du lac qui est ioint au grand lac de Champlain. Les Iroquois le
     nomment Andiatarocté, comme qui diroit, là où le lac se ferme. Le Pere
     le nomma le lac du S. Sacrement--_Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed.
     Vol. II. 1646, p. 15.
     Two important facts are here made perfectly plain; viz. that the
     original Indian name of the lake was _Andtatarocté_, and that the
     French named it Lac du Saint Sacrement because they arrived on its
     shores on the eve of the festival celebrated in honor of the Eucharist
     or the Lord's Supper. Notwithstanding this very plain statement, it has
     been affirmed without any historical foundation whatever, that the
     original Indian name of this lake was _Horican_, and that the Jesuit
     missionaries, having selected it for the typical purification of
     baptism on account of its limpid waters, named it _Lac du Saint
     Sacrement_. This perversion of history originated in the extraordinary
     declaration of Mr. James Fenimore Cooper, in his novel entitled "The
     Last of the Mohicans," in which these two erroneous statements are
     given as veritable history. This new discovery by Cooper was heralded
     by the public journals, scholars were deceived, and the bold imposition
     was so successful that it was even introduced into a meritorious poem
     in which the Horican of the ancient tribes and the baptismal waters of
     the limpid lake are handled with skill and effect. Twenty-five years
     after the writing of his novel, Mr. Cooper's conscience began seriously
     to trouble him, and he publicly confessed, in a preface to "The Last of
     the Mohicans," that the name Horican had been first applied to the lake
     by himself, and without any historical authority. He is silent as to
     the reason he had assigned for the French name of the lake, which was
     probably an assumption growing out of his ignorance of its
     meaning--_Vide The Last of The Mohicans_, by J. Fenimore Cooper,
     Gregory's ed., New York, 1864, pp ix-x and 12.
 64. "There are certain general customs which mark the California Indians,
     as, the non-use of torture on prisoners of war," &c.--_Vide The Tribes
     of California_, by Stephen Powers, in _Contributions to North American
     Ethnology_, Vol. III. p. 15. _Tribes of Washington and Oregon_, by
     George Gibbs, _idem_, Vol. I. p. 192.
 65. "It has been erroneously asserted that the practice of scalping did not
     prevail among the Indians before the advent of Europeans. In 1535,
     Carrier saw five scalps at Quebec, dried and stretched on hoops. In
     1564, Laudonniere saw them among the Indians of Florida. The Algonquins
     of New England and Nova Scotia were accustomed to cut off and carry
     away the head, which they afterwards scalped. Those of Canada, it
     seems, sometimes scalped the dead bodies on the field. The Algonquin
     practice of carrying off heads as trophies is mentioned by Lalemant,
     Roger Williams, Lescarbot, and Champlain."--_Vide Pioneers of France in
     the New World_, by Francis Parkman, Boston, 1874, p. 322. The practice
     of the tribes on the Pacific coast is different "In war they do not
     take scalps, but decapitate the slain and bring in the heads as
     trophies."--_Contributions to Am. Ethnology_, by Stephen Powers,
     Washington, 1877, Vol. III. pp. 21, 221. _Vide_ Vol. I. p. 192. The
     Yuki are an exception. Vol. III. p. 129.
 66. For an account of the sufferings of Brébeuf, Lalemant, and Jogues, see
     _History of Catholic Missions_, by John Gilmary Shea, pp. 188, 189,
 67. He was gentleman in ordinary to the king's chamber. "Gentil-homme
     ordinaire de nôstre Chambre."--_Vide Commission du Roy au Sieur de
     Monts, Histoire de la Nouvelle France_, par Marc Lescarbot, Paris,
     1612, p. 432.
 68. Called by the Indians _chaousarou_. For a full account of this
     crustacean _vide_ Vol. II. note 343.
 69. The mouth of the Richelieu was the usual place of meeting. In 1603, the
     allied tribes were there when Champlain ascended the St Lawrence. They
     had a fort, which he describes.--_Vide postea_, p 243.
 70. Champlain's description does not enable us to identify the place of
     this battle with exactness. It will be observed, if we refer to his
     text, that, leaving the island of St Ignace, and going half a league,
     crossing the river, they landed, when they were plainly on the mainland
     near the mouth of the Richelieu. They then went half a league, and
     finding themselves outrun by their Indian guides and lost, they called
     to two savages, whom they saw going through the woods, to guide them.
     Going a _short distance_, they were met by a messenger from the scene
     of conflict, to urge them to hasten forwards. Then, after going less
     than an eighth of a league, they were within the sound of the voices of
     the combatants at the fort These distances are estimated without
     measurement, and, of course, are inexact: but, putting the distances
     mentioned altogether, the journey through the woods to the fort was
     apparently a little more than two miles. Had they followed the course
     of the river, the distance would probably have been somewhat more:
     perhaps nearly three miles. Champlain does not positively say that the
     fort was on the Richelieu, but the whole narrative leaves no doubt that
     such was the fact. This river was the avenue through which the Iroquois
     were accustomed to come, and they would naturally encamp here where
     they could choose their own ground, and where their enemies were sure
     to approach them. If we refer to Champlain's illustration of _Fort des
     Iroquois_, Vol. II. p. 241, we shall observe that the river is pictured
     as comparatively narrow, which could hardly be a true representation if
     it were intended for the St. Lawrence. The escaping Iroquois are
     represented as swimming towards the right, which was probably in the
     direction of their homes on the south, the natural course of their
     retreat. The shallop of Des Prairies, who arrived late, is on the left
     of the fort, at the exact point where he would naturally disembark if
     he came up the Richelieu from the St. Lawrence. From a study of the
     whole narrative, together with the map, we infer that the fort was on
     the western bank of the Richelieu, between two and three miles from its
     mouth. We are confident that its location cannot be more definitely
 71. For a full account of the Indian treatment of prisoners, _vide antea_,
     pp. 94,95. Also Vol. II. pp. 224-227, 244-246.
 72. _Vide Contrat de mariage de Samuel de Champlain, Oeuvres de Champlain_,
     Quebec ed. Vol. VI., _Pièces Fustificatives_, p. 33.
     Among the early marriages not uncommon at that period, the following
     are examples. César, the son of Henry IV., was espoused by public
     ceremonies to the daughter of the Duke de Mercoeur in 1598. The
     bridegroom was four years old and the bride-elect had just entered her
     sixth year. The great Condé, by the urgency of his avaricious father,
     was unwillingly married at the age of twenty, to Claire Clemence de
     Maillé Brézé, the niece of Cardinal Richelieu, when she was but
     thirteen years of age.
 Champlain lost no time in hastening to Quebec, where he found Du Parc, whom
 he had left in charge, and the colony in excellent health. The paramount
 and immediate object which now engaged his attention was to secure for the
 present season the fur-trade of the Indians. This furnished the chief
 pecuniary support of De Monts's company, and was absolutely necessary to
 its existence. He soon, therefore, took his departure for the Falls of St.
 Louis, situated a short distance above Montreal, and now better known as La
 Chine Rapids. In the preceding year, this place had been agreed upon as a
 rendezvous by the friendly tribes. But, as they had not arrived, Champlain
 proceeded to make a thorough exploration on both sides of the St. Lawrence,
 extending his journeys more than twenty miles through the forests and along
 the shores of the river, for the purpose of selecting a proper site for a
 trading-house, with doubtless an ultimate purpose of making it a permanent
 settlement. After a full survey, he finally fixed upon a point of land
 which he named _La Place Royale_, situated within the present city of
 Montreal, on the eastern side of the little brook Pierre, where it flows
 into the St. Lawrence, at Point à Callière. On the banks of this small
 stream there were found evidences that the land to the extent of sixty
 acres had at some former period been cleared up and cultivated by the
 savages, but more recently had been entirely abandoned on account of the
 wars, as he learned from his Indian guides, in which they were incessantly
 Near the spot which had thus been selected for a future settlement,
 Champlain discovered a deposit of excellent clay, and, by way of
 experiment, had a quantity of it manufactured into bricks, of which he made
 a wall on the brink of the river, to test their power of resisting the
 frosts and the floods. Gardens were also made and feeds sown, to prove the
 quality of the soil. A weary month passed slowly away, with scarcely an
 incident to break the monotony, except the drowning of two Indians, who had
 unwisely attempted to pass the rapids in a bark canoe overloaded with
 heron, which they had taken on an island above. In the mean time, Champlain
 had been followed to his rendezvous by a herd of adventurers from the
 maritime towns of France, who, stimulated by the freedom of trade, had
 flocked after him in numbers out of all proportion to the amount of furs
 which they could hope to obtain from the wandering bands of savages that
 might chance to visit the St. Lawrence. The river was lined with these
 voracious cormorants, anxiously watching the coming of the savages, all
 impatient and eager to secure as large a share as possible of the uncertain
 and meagre booty for which they had crossed the Atlantic. Fifteen or twenty
 barques were moored along the shore, all seeking the best opportunity for
 the display of the worthless trinkets for which they had avariciously hoped
 to obtain a valuable cargo of furs.
 A long line of canoes was at length seen far in the distance. It was a
 fleet of two hundred Hurons, who had swept down the rapids, and were now
 approaching slowly and in a dignified and impressive order. On coming near,
 they set up a simultaneous shout, the token of savage greeting, which made
 the welkin ring. This salute was answered by a hundred French arquebuses
 from barque and boat and shore. The unexpected multitude of the French, the
 newness of the firearms to most of them, filled the savages with dismay.
 They concealed their fear as well and as long as possible. They
 deliberately built their cabins on the shore, but soon threw up a
 barricade, then called a council at midnight, and finally, under pretence
 of a beaver-hunt, suddenly removed above the rapids, where they knew the
 French barques could not come. When they were thus in a place of safety,
 they confessed to Champlain that they had faith in him, which they
 confirmed by valuable gifts of furs, but none whatever in the grasping herd
 that had followed him to the rendezvous. The trade, meagre in the
 aggregate, divided among so many, had proved a loss to all. It was soon
 completed, and the savages departed to their homes. Subsequently,
 thirty-eight canoes, with eighty or a hundred Algonquin warriors, came to
 the rendezvous. They brought, however, but a small quantity of furs, which
 added little to the lucrative character of the summer's trade.
 The reader will bear in mind that Champlain was not here merely as the
 superintendent and responsible agent of a trading expedition. This was a
 subordinate purpose, and the result of circumstances which his principal
 did not choose, but into which he had been unwillingly forced. It was
 necessary not to overlook this interest in the present exigency,
 nevertheless De Monts was sustained by an ulterior purpose of a far higher
 and nobler character. He still entertained the hope that he should yet
 secure a royal charter under which his aspirations for colonial enterprise
 should have full scope, and that his ambition would be finally crowned with
 the success which he had so long coveted, and for which he had so
 assiduously labored. Champlain, who had been for many years the geographer
 of the king, who had carefully reported, as he advanced into unexplored
 regions, his surveys of the rivers, harbors, and lakes, and had given
 faithful descriptions of the native inhabitants, knowledge absolutely
 necessary as a preliminary step in laying the foundation of a French empire
 in America, did not for a moment lose sight of this ulterior purpose. Amid
 the commercial operations to which for the time being he was obliged to
 devote his chief attention, he tried in vain to induce the Indians to
 conduct an exploring party up the St. Maurice, and thus reach the
 headwaters of the Saguenay, a journey which had been planned two years
 before. They had excellent excuses to offer, and the undertaking was
 necessarily deferred for the present. He, however, obtained much valuable
 information from them in conversations, in regard to the source of the St.
 Lawrence, the topography of the country which they inhabited, and even
 drawings were executed by them to illustrate to him other regions which
 they had personally visited.
 On the 18th of July, Champlain left the rendezvous, and arrived at Quebec
 on the evening of the next day. Having ordered all necessary repairs at the
 settlement, and, not unmindful of its adornment, planted rose-bushes about
 it, and taking specimens of oak timber to exhibit in France, he left for
 Tadoussac, and finally for France on the 11th of August, and arrived at
 Rochelle on the 16th of September, 1611.
 Immediately on his arrival, Champlain repaired to the city of Pons, in
 Saintonge, of which De Monts was governor, and laid before him the
 Situation of his affairs at Quebec. De Monts still clung to the hope of
 obtaining a royal commission for the exclusive right of trade, but his
 associates were wholly disheartened by the competition and consequent
 losses of the last year, and had the sagacity to see that there was no hope
 of a remedy in the future. They accordingly declined to continue further
 expenditures. De Monts purchased their interest in the establishment at
 Quebec, and, notwithstanding the obstacles which had been and were still to
 be encountered, was brave enough to believe that he could stem the tide
 unaided and alone. He hastened to Paris to secure the much coveted
 commission from the king. Important business, however, soon called him in
 another direction, and the whole matter was placed in the hands of
 Champlain, with the understanding that important modifications were to be
 introduced into the constitution and management of the company.
 The burden thus unexpectedly laid upon Champlain was not a light one. His
 experience and personal knowledge led him to appreciate more fully than any
 one else the difficulties that environed the enterprise of planting a
 colony in New France. He saw very clearly that a royal commission merely,
 with whatever exclusive rights it conferred; would in itself be ineffectual
 and powerless in the present complications. It was obvious to him that the
 administration must be adapted to the state of affairs that had gradually
 grown up at Quebec, and that it must be sustained by powerful personal
 Champlain proceeded, therefore, to draw up certain rules and regulations
 which he deemed necessary for the management of the colony and the
 protection of its interests. The leading characteristics of the plan were,
 first, an association of which all who desired to carry on trade in New
 France might become members, sharing equally in its advantages and its
 burdens, its profits and its losses: and, secondly, that it should be
 presided over by a viceroy of high position and commanding influence. De
 Monts, who had thus far been at the head of the undertaking, was a
 gentleman of great respectability, zeal, and honesty, but his name did not,
 as society was constituted at that time in France, carry with it any
 controlling weight with the merchants or others whose views were adverse to
 his own. He was unable to carry out any plans which involved expense,
 either for the exploration of the country or for the enlargement and growth
 of the colony. It was necessary, in the opinion of Champlain, to place at
 the head of the company a man of such exalted official and social position
 that his opinions would be listened to with respect and his wishes obeyed
 with alacrity.
 He submitted his plan to De Monts and likewise to President Jeannin, [73] a
 man venerable with age, distinguished for his wisdom and probity, and at
 this time having under his control the finances of the kingdom. They both
 pronounced it excellent and urged its execution.
 Having thus obtained the cordial and intelligent assent of the highest
 authority to his scheme, his next step was to secure a viceroy whose
 exalted name and standing should conform to the requirements of his plan.
 This was an object somewhat difficult to attain. It was not easy to find a
 nobleman who possessed all the qualities desired. After careful
 consideration, however, the Count de Soissons [74] was thought to unite
 better than any other the characteristics which the office required.
 Champlain, therefore, laid before the Count, through a member of the king's
 council, a detailed exhibition of his plan and a map of New France executed
 by himself. He soon after received an intimation from this nobleman of his
 willingness to accept the office, if he should be appointed. A petition was
 sent by Champlain to the king and his council, and the appointment was made
 on the 8th of October, 1612, and on the 15th of the same month the Count
 issued a commission appointing Champlain his lieutenant.
 Before this commission had been published in the ports and the maritime
 towns of France, as required by law, and before a month had elapsed,
 unhappily the death of the Count de Soissons suddenly occurred at his
 Château de Blandy. Henry de Bourbon, the Prince de Condé, [75] was hastily
 appointed his successor, and a new commission was issued to Champlain on
 the 22d of November of the same year.
 The appointment of this prince carried with it the weight of high position
 and influence, though hardly the character which would have been most
 desirable under the circumstances. He was, however, a potent safeguard
 against the final success, though not indeed of the attempt on the part of
 enemies, to break up the company, or to interfere with its plans. No sooner
 had the publication of the commission been undertaken, than the merchants,
 who had schemes of trade in New France, put forth a powerful opposition.
 The Parliamentary Court at Rouen even forbade its publication in that city,
 and the merchants of St. Malo renewed their opposition, which had before
 been set forth, on the flimsy ground that Jacques Cartier, the discoverer
 of New France, was a native of their municipality, and therefore they had
 rights prior and superior to all others.
 After much delay and several journeys by Champlain to Rouen, these
 difficulties were overcome. There was, indeed, no solid ground of
 opposition, as none were debarred from engaging in the enterprise who were
 willing to share in the burdens as well as the profits.
 These delays prevented the complete organization of the company
 contemplated by Champlain's new plan, but it was nevertheless necessary for
 him to make the voyage to Quebec the present season, in order to keep up
 the continuity of his operations there, and to renew his friendly relations
 with the Indians, who had been greatly disappointed at not seeing him the
 preceding year. Four vessels, therefore, were authorized to sail under the
 commission of the viceroy, each of which was to furnish four men for the
 service of Champlain in explorations and in aid of the Indians in their
 wars, if it should be necessary.
 He accordingly left Honfleur in a vessel belonging to his old friend Pont
 Gravé, on the 6th of March, 1613, and arrived at Tadoussac on the 29th of
 April. On the 7th of May he reached Quebec, where he found the little
 colony in excellent condition, the winter having been exceedingly mild, and
 agreeable, the river not having been frozen in the severest weather. He
 repaired at once to the trading rendezvous at Montreal, then commonly known
 as the Falls of St. Louis. He learned from a trading barque that had
 preceded him, that a small band of Algonquins had already been there on
 their return from a raid upon the Iroquois. They had, however, departed to
 their homes to celebrate a feast, at which the torture of two captives whom
 they had taken from the Iroquois was to form the chief element in the
 entertainment. A few days later, three Algonquin canoes arrived from the
 interior with furs, which were purchased by the French. From them they
 learned that the ill treatment of the previous year, and their
 disappointment at not having seen Champlain there as they had expected, had
 led the Indians to abandon the idea of again coming to the rendezvous, and
 that large numbers of them had gone on their usual summer's expedition
 against the Iroquois.
 Under these circumstances, Champlain resolved, in making his explorations,
 to visit personally the Indians who had been accustomed to come to the
 Falls of St. Louis, to assure them of kind treatment in the future, to
 renew his alliance with them against their enemies, and, if possible, to
 induce them to come to the rendezvous, where there was a large quantity of
 French goods awaiting them.
 It will be remembered that an ulterior purpose of the French, in making a
 settlement in North America, was to enable them better to explore the
 interior and discover an avenue by water to the Pacific Ocean. This shorter
 passage to Cathay, or the land of spicery, had been the day-dream of all
 the great navigators in this direction for more than a hundred years.
 Whoever should discover it would confer a boon of untold commercial value
 upon his country, and crown himself with imperishable honor. Champlain had
 been inspired by this dream from the first day that he set his foot upon
 the soil of New France. Every indication that pointed in this direction he
 watched with care and seized upon with avidity. In 1611, a young man in the
 colony, Nicholas de Vignan, had been allowed, after the trading season had
 closed, to accompany the Algonquins to their distant homes, and pass the
 winter with them. This was one of the methods which had before been
 successfully resorted to for obtaining important information. De Vignan
 returned to Quebec in the spring of 1612, and the same year to France.
 Having heard apparently something of Hudson's discovery and its
 accompanying disaster, he made it the basis of a story drawn wholly from
 his own imagination, but which he well knew must make a strong impression
 upon Champlain and all others interested in new discoveries. He stated
 that, during his abode with the Indians, he had made an excursion into the
 forests of the north, and that he had actually discovered a sea of salt
 water; that the river Ottawa had its source in a lake from which another
 river flowed into the sea in question; that he had seen on its shores the
 wreck of an English ship, from which eighty men had been taken and slain by
 the savages; and that they had among them an English boy, whom they were
 keeping to present to him.
 As was expected, this story made a strong impression upon the mind of
 Champlain. The priceless object for which he had been in search so many
 years seemed now within his grasp. The simplicity and directness of the
 narrative, and the want of any apparent motive for deception, were a strong
 guaranty of its truth. But, to make assurance doubly sure, Vignan was
 cross-examined and tested in various ways, and finally, before leaving
 France, was made to certify to the truth of his statement in the presence
 of two notaries at Rochelle. Champlain laid the story before the Chancellor
 de Sillery, the President Jeannin, the old Marshal de Brissac, and others,
 who assured him that it was a question of so great importance, that he
 ought at once to test the truth of the narrative by a personal exploration.
 He resolved, therefore, to make this one of the objects of his summer's
 With two bark canoes, laden with provisions, arms, and a few trifles as
 presents for the savages, an Indian guide, four Frenchmen, one of whom was
 the mendacious Vignan, Champlain left the rendezvous at Montreal on the
 27th of May. After getting over the Lachine Rapids, they crossed Lake St.
 Louis and the Two Mountains, and, passing up the Ottawa, now expanding into
 a broad lake and again contracting into narrows, whence its pent-up waters
 swept over precipices and boulders in furious, foaming currents, they at
 length, after incredible labor, reached the island Allumette, a distance of
 not less than two hundred and twenty-five miles. In no expedition which
 Champlain had thus far undertaken had he encountered obstacles so
 formidable. The falls and rapids in the river were numerous and difficult
 to pass. Sometimes a portage was impossible on account of the denseness of
 the forests, in which case they were compelled to drag their canoes by
 ropes, wading along the edge of the water, or clinging to the precipitous
 banks of the river as best they could. When a portage could not be avoided,
 it was necessary to carry their armor, provisions, clothing, and canoes
 through the forests, over precipices, and sometimes over stretches of
 territory where some tornado had prostrated the huge pines in tangled
 confusion, through which a pathway was almost impossible. [76] To lighten
 their burdens, nearly every thing was abandoned but their canoes. Fish and
 wild-fowl were an uncertain reliance for food, and sometimes they toiled on
 for twenty-four hours with scarcely any thing to appease their craving
 Overcome with fatigue and oppressed by hunger, they at length arrived at
 Allumette Island, the abode of the chief Tessoüat, by whom they were
 cordially entertained. Nothing but the hope of reaching the north sea could
 have sustained them amid the perils and sufferings through which they had
 passed in reaching this inhospitable region. The Indians had chosen this
 retreat not from choice, but chiefly on account of its great
 inaccessibility to their enemies. They were astonished to see Champlain and
 his company, and facetiously suggested that it must be a dream, or that
 these new-comers had fallen from the clouds. After the usual ceremonies of
 feasting and smoking, Champlain was permitted to lay before Tessoüat and
 his chiefs the object of his journey. When he informed them that he was in
 search of a salt sea far to the north of them, which had been actually seen
 two years before by one of his companions, he learned to his disappointment
 and mortification that the whole story of Vignan was a sheer fabrication.
 The miscreant had indeed passed a winter on the very spot where they then
 were, but had never been a league further north. The Indians themselves had
 no knowledge of the north sea, and were highly enraged at the baseness of
 Vignan's falsehood, and craved the opportunity of despatching him at once.
 They jeered at him, calling him a liar, and even the children took up the
 refrain, vociferating vigorously and heaping maledictions upon his head.
 Indignant as he was, Champlain had too much philosophy in his composition
 to commit an indiscretion at such a moment as this. He accordingly
 restrained the Savages and his own anger, bore his insult and
 disappointment with exemplary patience, giving up all hope of seeing the
 salt sea in this direction, as he humorously added, "except in
 Before leaving Allumette Island on his return, Champlain invited Tessoüat
 to send a trading expedition to the Falls of St. Louis, where he would find
 an ample opportunity for an exchange of commodities. The invitation was
 readily accepted, and information was at once sent out to the neighboring
 chiefs, requesting them to join in the enterprise. The savages soon began
 to assemble, and when Champlain left, he was accompanied by forty canoes
 well laden with furs; others joined them at different points on the way,
 and on reaching Montreal the number had swollen to eighty.
 An incident occurred on their journey down the river worthy of record. When
 the fleet of savage fur-traders had arrived at the foot of the Chaudière
 Falls, not a hundred rods distant from the site of the present city of
 Ottawa, having completed the portage, they all assembled on the shore,
 before relaunching their canoes, to engage in a ceremony which they never
 omitted when passing this spot. A wooden plate of suitable dimensions was
 passed round, into which each of the savages cast a small piece of tobacco.
 The plate was then placed on the ground, in the midst of the company, and
 all danced around it, singing at the same time. An address was then made by
 one of the chiefs, setting forth the great importance of this time-honored
 custom, particularly as a safeguard and protection against their enemies.
 Then, taking the plate, the speaker cast its contents into the boiling
 cauldron at the base of the falls, the act being accompanied by a loud
 shout from the assembled multitude. This fall, named the _Chaudière_, or
 cauldron, by Champlain, formed in fact the limit above which the Iroquois
 rarely if ever went in hostile pursuit of the Algonquins. The region above
 was exceedingly difficult of approach, and from which it was still more
 difficult, in case of an attack, to retreat. But the Iroquois often
 lingered here in ambush, and fell upon the unsuspecting inhabitants of the
 upper Ottawa as they came down the river. It was, therefore, a place of
 great danger; and the Indians, enslaved by their fears and superstitions,
 did not believe it possible to make a prosperous journey, without
 observing, as they passed, the ceremonies above described.
 On reaching Montreal, three additional ships had arrived from France with a
 license to carry on trade from the Prince de Condé, the viceroy, making
 seven in all in port. The trade with the Indians for the furs brought in
 the eighty canoes, which had come with Champlain to Montreal, was soon
 despatched. Vignan was pardoned on the solemn promise, a condition offered
 by himself, that he would make a journey to the north sea and bring back a
 true report, having made a most humble confession of his offence in the
 presence of the whole colony and the Indians, who were purposely assembled
 to receive it. This public and formal administration of reproof was well
 adapted to produce a powerful effect upon the mind of the culprit, and
 clearly indicates the moderation and wisdom, so uniformly characteristic of
 Champlain's administration.
 The business of the season having been completed, Champlain returned to
 France, arriving at St. Malo on the 26th of August, 1613. Before leaving,
 however, he arranged to send back with the Algonquins who had come from
 Isle Allumette two of his young men to pass the winter, for the purpose, as
 on former occasions, of learning the language and obtaining the information
 which comes only from an intimate and prolonged association.
 73. Pierre Jeannin was born at Autun, in 1540, and died about 1622. He
     began the practice of law at Dijon, in 1569. Though a Catholic, he
     always counselled tolerant measures in the treatment of the
     Protestants. By his influence he prevented the massacre of the
     Protestants at Dijon in 1572. He was a Councillor, and afterward
     President, of the Parliament of Dijon. He was the private adviser of
     the Duke of Mayenne. He united himself with the party of the League in
     1589. He negotiated the peace between Mayenne and Henry IV. The king
     became greatly attached to him, and appointed him a Councillor of State
     and Superintendent of Finances. He held many offices and did great
     service to the State. After the death of the king, Marie de Médicis,
     the regent, continued him as Superintendent of Finances.
 74. Count de Soissons, Charles de Bourbon, was born at Nogent-le-Rotrou, in
     1556, and died Nov. 1, 1612. He was educated in the Catholic religion.
     He acted for a time with the party of the League, but, falling in love
     with Catherine, the sister of Henry IV., better to secure his object he
     abandoned the League and took a military command under Henry III., and
     distinguished himself for bravery when the king was besieged in Tours.
     After the death of the king, he espoused the cause of Henry IV., was
     made Grand Master of France, and took part in the siege of Paris. He
     attempted a secret marriage with Catherine, but was thwarted; and the
     unhappy lovers were compelled, by the Duke of Sully, to renounce their
     matrimonial intentions. He had been Governor of Dauphiny, and, at the
     time of his death, was Governor of Normandy, with a pension of 50,000
 75. Prince de Condé, Henry de Bourbon II., the posthumous son of the first
     Henry de Bourbon, was born at Saint Jean d'Angely, in 1588. He married,
     in 1609, Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, the sister of Henry, the
     Duke de Montmorency, who succeeded him as the Viceroy of New France. To
     avoid the impertinent gallantries of Henry IV., who had fallen in love
     with this beautiful Princess, Condé and his wife left France, and did
     not return till the death of the king. He headed a conspiracy against
     the Regent, Marie de Médicis, and was thrown into prison on the first
     of September, 1616, where he remained three years. Influenced by
     ambition, and more particularly by his avarice, he forced his son
     Louis, Le Grand Condé, to marry the niece of Cardinal Richelieu, Claire
     Clémence de Maillé-Brézé. He did much to confer power and influence
     upon his family, largely through his avarice, which was his chief
     characteristic. The wit of Voltaire attributes his crowning glory to
     his having been the father of the great Condé. During the detention of
     the Prince de Condé in prison, the Mareschal de Thémins was Acting
     Viceroy of New France, having been appointed by Marie de Médicis, the
     Queen Regent.--_Vide Voyages du Sieur de Champlain_, Paris, 1632, p.
 76. In making the portage from what is now known as Portage du Fort to
     Muskrat Lake, a distance of about nine miles, Champlain, though less
     heavily loaded than his companions, carried three French arquebusses,
     three oars, his cloak, and some small articles, and was at the same
     time bitterly oppressed by swarms of hungry and insatiable mosquitoes.
     On the old portage road, traversed by Champlain and his party at this
     time, in 1613, an astrolabe, inscribed 1603, was found in 1867. The
     presumptive evidence that this instrument was lost by Champlain is
     stated in a brochure by Mr. O. H. Marshall.--_Vide Magazine of American
     History_ for March, 1879.
 During the whole of the year 1614, Champlain remained in France, occupied
 for the most part in adding new members to his company of associates, and
 in forming and perfecting such plans as were clearly necessary for the
 prosperity and success of the colony. His mind was particularly absorbed in
 devising means for the establishment of the Christian faith in the wilds of
 America. Hitherto nothing whatever had been done in this direction, if we
 except the efforts of Poutrincourt on the Atlantic coast, which had already
 terminated in disaster. [77] No missionary of any sort had had hitherto set
 his foot upon that part of the soil of New France lying within the Gulf of
 St. Lawrence. [78] A fresh interest had been awakened in the mind of
 Champlain. He saw its importance in a new light. He sought counsel and
 advice from various persons whose wisdom commended them to his attention.
 Among the rest was Louis Houêl, an intimate friend, who held some office
 about the person of the king, and who was the chief manager of the salt
 works at Brouage. This gentleman took a hearty interest in the project, and
 assured Champlain that it would not be difficult to raise the means of
 sending out three or four Fathers, and, moreover, that he knew some of the
 order of the Recollects, belonging to a convent at Brouage, whose zeal he
 was sure would be equal to the undertaking. On communicating with them, he
 found them quite ready to engage in the work. Two of them were sent to
 Paris to obtain authority and encouragement from the proper sources. It
 happened that about this time the chief dignitaries of the church were in
 Paris, attending a session of the Estates. The bishops and cardinals were
 waited upon by Champlain, and their zeal awakened and their co-operation
 secured in raising the necessary means for sustaining the mission. After
 the usual negotiations and delays, the object was fully accomplished;
 fifteen hundred _livres_ were placed in the hands of Champlain for outfit
 and expenses, and four Recollect friars embarked with him at Honfleur, on
 the ship "St. Étienne," on the 24th of April, 1615, viz., Denis Jamay, Jean
 d'Olbeau, Joseph le Caron, and the lay-brother Pacifique du Plessis. [79]
 On their arrival at Quebec, Champlain addressed himself immediately to the
 preparation of lodgings for the missionaries and the erection of a chapel
 for the celebration of divine service. The Fathers were impatient to enter
 the fields of labor severally assigned to them. Joseph le Caron was
 appointed to visit the Hurons in their distant forest home, concerning
 which he had little or no information; but he nevertheless entered upon the
 duty with manly courage and Christian zeal. Jean d'Olbeau assumed the
 mission to the Montagnais, embracing the region about Tadoussac and the
 river Saguenay, while Denis Jamay and Pacifique du Plessis took charge of
 the chapel at Quebec.
 At the earliest moment possible Champlain hastened to the rendezvous at
 Montreal, to meet the Indians who had already reached there on their annual
 visit for trade. The chiefs were in raptures of delight on seeing their old
 friend again, and had a grand scheme to propose. They had not forgotten
 that Champlain had often promised to aid them in their wars. They
 approached the subject, however, with moderation and diplomatic wisdom.
 They knew perfectly well that the trade in peltry was greatly desired, in
 fact that it was indispensable to the French. The substance of what they
 had to say was this. It had become now, if not impossible, exceedingly
 hazardous, to bring their furs to market. Their enemies, the Iroquois, like
 so many prowling wolves, were sure to be on their trail as they came down
 the Ottawa, and, incumbered with their loaded canoes, the struggle must be
 unequal, and it was nearly impossible for them ever to be winners. The only
 solution of the difficulty known to them, or which they cared to consider,
 as in all Indian warfare, was to annihilate their enemies utterly and wipe
 out their name for ever. Let this be done, and the fruits of peace would
 return, their commerce would be safe, prosperous, and greatly augmented.
 Such were the reasons presented by the allies. But there were other
 considerations, likewise, which influenced the mind of Champlain. It was
 necessary to maintain a close and firm alliance with the Indians in order
 to extend the French discoveries and domain into new and more distant
 regions, and on this extension of French influence depended their hope of
 converting the savages to the Christian faith. The force of these
 considerations could not be resisted. Champlain decided that, under the
 circumstances, it was necessary to give them the desired assistance.
 A general assembly was called, and the nature and extent of the campaign
 fully considered. It was to be of vastly greater proportions than any that
 had hitherto been proposed. The Indians offered to furnish two thousand
 five hundred and fifty men, but they were to be gathered together from
 different and distant points. The journey must, therefore, be long and
 perilous. The objective point, viz., a celebrated Iroquois fort, could not
 be reached by the only feasible route in a less distance than eight hundred
 or nine hundred miles, and it would require an absence of three or four
 months. Preparations for the journey were entered upon at once. Champlain
 visited Quebec to make arrangements for his long absence. On his return to
 Montreal, the Indians, impatient of delay, had already departed, and Father
 Joseph le Caron had gone with them to his distant field of missionary labor
 among the Hurons.
 On the 9th of July, 1615, Champlain embarked, taking with him an
 interpreter, probably Etienne Brûlé, a French servant, and ten savages,
 who, with their equipments, were to be accommodated in two canoes. They
 entered the Rivière des Prairies, which flows into the St. Lawrence some
 leagues east of Montreal, crossing the Lake of the Two Mountains, passed up
 the Ottawa, taking the same route which he had traversed some years before,
 revisiting its long succession of reaches, its placid lakes, impetuous
 rapids, and magnificent falls, and at length arrived at the point where the
 river, by an abrupt angle, begins to flow from the northwest. Here, leaving
 the Ottawa, they entered the Mattawan, passing down this river into Lac du
 Talon, thence into Lac la Tortue, and by a short portage, into Lake
 Nipissing. After remaining here two days, entertained generously by the
 Nipissingian chiefs, they crossed the lake, and, following the channel of
 French River, entered Lake Huron, or rather the Georgian Bay. They coasted
 along until they reached the northern limits of the county of Simcoe. Here
 they disembarked and entered the territory of their old friends and allies,
 the Hurons.
 The domain of this tribe consisted of a peninsula formed by the Georgian
 Bay, the river Severn, and Lake Simcoe, at the farthest, not more than
 forty by twenty-five miles in extent, but more generally cultivated by the
 native population, and of a richer soil than any region hitherto explored
 north of the St. Lawrence and the lakes. They visited four of their
 villages and were cordially received and feasted on Indian corn, squashes,
 and fish, with some variety in the methods of cooking. They then proceeded
 to Carhagouha, [80] a town fortified with a triple palisade of wood
 thirty-five feet in height. Here they found the Recollect Father Joseph Le
 Caron, who, having preceded them but a few days, and not anticipating the
 visit, was filled with raptures of astonishment and joy. The good Father
 was intent upon his pious work. On the 12th of August, surrounded by his
 followers, he formally erected a cross as a symbol of the faith, and on the
 same day they celebrated the mass and chanted TE DEUM LAUDAMUS for the
 first time.
 Lingering but two days, Champlain and ten of the French, eight of whom had
 belonged to the Suite of Le Caron, proceeded slowly towards Cahiagué, [81]
 the rendezvous where the mustering hosts of the savage warriors were to set
 forth together upon their hostile excursion into the country of the
 Iroquois. Of the Huron villages visited by them, six are particularly
 mentioned as fortified by triple palisades of wood. Cahiagué, the capital,
 encircled two hundred large cabins within its wooden walls. It was situated
 on the north of Lake Simcoe, ten or twelve miles from this body of water,
 surrounded by a country rich in corn, squashes, and a great variety of
 small fruits, with plenty of game and fish. When the warriors had mostly
 assembled, the motley crowd, bearing their bark canoes, meal, and
 equipments on their shoulders, moved down in a southwesterly direction till
 they reached the narrow strait that unites Lake Chouchiching with Lake
 Simcoe, where the Hurons had a famous fishing wear. Here they remained some
 time for other more tardy bands to join them. At this point they despatched
 twelve of the most stalwart savages, with the interpreter, Étienne Brûlé,
 on a dangerous journey to a distant tribe dwelling on the west of the Five
 Nations, to urge them to hasten to the fort of the Iroquois, as they had
 already received word from them that they would join them in this campaign.
 Champlain and his allies soon left the fishing wear and coasted along the
 northeastern shore of Lake Simcoe until they reached its most eastern
 border, when they made a portage to Sturgeon Lake, thence sweeping down
 Pigeon and Stony Lakes, through the Otonabee into Rice Lake, the River
 Trent, the Bay of Quinté, and finally rounding the eastern point of Amherst
 Island, they were fairly on the waters of Lake Ontario, just as it merges
 into the great River St. Lawrence, and where the Thousand Islands begin to
 loom into sight. Here they crossed the extremity of the lake at its outflow
 into the river, pausing at this important geographical point to take the
 latitude, which, by his imperfect instruments, Champlain found to be 43
 deg. north. [82]
 Sailing down to the southern side of the lake, after a distance, by their
 estimate, of about fourteen leagues, they landed and concealed their canoes
 in a thicket near the shore. Taking their arms, they proceeded along the
 lake some ten miles, through a country diversified with meadows, brooks,
 ponds, and beautiful forests filled with plenty of wild game, when they
 struck inland, apparently at the mouth of Little Salmon River. Advancing in
 a southerly direction, along the course of this stream, they crossed Oneida
 River, an outlet of the lake of the same name. When within about ten miles
 of the fort which they intended to capture, they met a small party of
 savages, men, women, and children, bound on a fishing excursion. Although
 unarmed, nevertheless, according to their custom, they took them all
 prisoners of war, and began to inflict the usual tortures, but this was
 dropped on Champlain's indignant interference. The next day, on the 10th of
 October, they reached the great fortress of the Iroquois, after a journey
 of four days from their landing, a distance loosely estimated at from
 twenty-five to thirty leagues. Here they found the Iroquois in their
 fields, industriously gathering in their autumnal harvest of corn and
 squashes. A skirmish ensued, in which several were wounded on both sides.
 The fort, a drawing of which has been left us by Champlain, was situated a
 few miles south of the eastern terminus of Oneida Lake, on a small stream
 that winds its way in a northwesterly direction, and finally loses itself
 in the same body of water. This rude military structure was hexagonal in
 form, one of its sides bordering immediately upon a small pond, while four
 of the other laterals, two on the right and two on the left were washed by
 a channel of water flowing along their bases. [83] The side opposite the
 pond alone had an unobstructed land approach. As an Indian military work,
 it was of great strength. It was made of the trunks of trees, as large as
 could be conveniently transported. These were set in the ground, forming
 four concentric palisades, not more than six inches apart, thirty feet in
 height, interlaced and bound together near the top, supporting a gallery of
 double paling extending around the whole enclosure, proof not only against
 the flint-headed arrows of the Indian, but against the leaden bullets of
 the French arquebus. Port-holes were opened along the gallery, through
 which effective service could be done upon assailants by hurling stones and
 other missiles with which they were well provided. Gutters were laid along
 between the palisades to conduct water to every part of the fortification
 for extinguishing fire, in case of need.
 It was obvious to Champlain that this fort was a complete protection to the
 Iroquois, unless an opening could be made in its walls. This could not be
 easily done by any force which he and his allies had at their command. His
 only hope was in setting fire to the palisades on the land side. This
 required the dislodgement of the enemy, who were posted in large numbers on
 the gallery, and the protection of the men in kindling the fire, and
 shielding it, when kindled, against the extinguishing torrents which could
 be poured from the water-spouts and gutters of the fort. He consequently
 ordered two instruments to be made with which he hoped to overcome these
 obstacles. One was a wooden tower or frame-work, dignified by Champlain as
 a _cavalier_, somewhat higher than the palisades, on the top of which was
 an enclosed platform where three or four sharp-shooters could in security
 clear the gallery, and thus destroy the effective force of the enemy. The
 other was a large wooden shield, or _mantelet_, under the protection of
 which they could in safety approach and kindle a fire at the base of the
 fort, and protect the fire thus kindled from being extinguished by water
 coming from above.
 When all was in readiness, two hundred savages bore the framed tower and
 planted it near the palisades. Three arquebusiers mounted it and poured a
 deadly fire upon the defenders on the gallery. The battle now began and
 raged fiercely for three hours, but Champlain strove in vain to carry out
 any plan of attack. The savages rushed to and fro in a frenzy of
 excitement, filling the air with their discordant yells, observing no
 method and heeding no commands. The wooden shields were not even brought
 forward, and the burning of the fort was undertaken with so little judgment
 and skill that the fire was instantly extinguished by the fountains of
 water let loose by the skilful defenders through the gutters and
 water-spouts of the fort.
 The sharp-shooters on the tower killed and wounded a large number, but
 nevertheless no effective impression was made upon the fortress. Two chiefs
 and fifteen men of the allies were wounded, while one was killed, or died
 of wounds received in a skirmish before the formal attack upon the fort
 began. After a frantic and desultory fight of three hours, the attacking
 savages lost their courage and began to clamor for a retreat. No
 persuasions could induce them to renew the attack.
 After lingering four days in vain expectation of the arrival of the allies
 to whom Brûlé had been sent, the retreat began. Champlain had been wounded
 in the knee and leg, and was unable to walk. Litters in the form of baskets
 were fabricated, into which the wounded were packed in a constrained and
 uncomfortable attitude, and carried on the shoulders of the men. As the
 task of the carriers was lightened by frequent relays, and, as there was
 little baggage to impede their progress, the march was rapid. In three days
 they had reached their canoes, which had remained in the place of their
 concealment near the shore of the lake, an estimated distance of
 twenty-five or thirty leagues from the fort.
 Such was the character of a great battle among the contending savages, an
 undisciplined host, without plan or well-defined purpose, rushing in upon
 each other in the heat of a sudden frenzy of passion, striking an aimless
 blow, and following it by a hasty and cowardly retreat. They had, for the
 time being at least, no ulterior design. They fought and expected no
 substantial reward of their conflict. The sweetness of personal revenge and
 the blotting out a few human lives were all they hoped for or cared at this
 time to attain. The invading party had apparently destroyed more than they
 had themselves lost, and this was doubtless a suitable reward for the
 hazards and hardships of the campaign.
 The retreating warriors lingered ten days on the shore of Lake Ontario, at
 the point where they had left their canoes, beguiling the time in preparing
 for hunting and fishing excursions, and for their journey to their distant
 homes. Champlain here took occasion to call the attention of the allies to
 their promise to conduct him safely to his home. The head of the St.
 Lawrence as it flows from the Ontario is less than two hundred miles from
 Montreal, a journey by canoes not difficult to make. Champlain desired to
 return this way, and demanded an escort. The chiefs were reluctant to grant
 his request. Masters in the art of making excuses, they saw many
 insuperable obstacles. In reality, they did not desire to part with him,
 but wished to avail themselves of his knowledge, counsel, and personal aid
 against their enemies. When one obstacle after another gave way, and when
 volunteers were found ready to accompany him, no canoes could be spared for
 the journey. This closed the debate. Champlain was not prepared for the
 exposure and hardship of a winter among the savages, but there was left to
 him no choice. He submitted as gracefully as he could, and with such
 patience as necessity made it possible for him to command.
 The bark flotilla was at length ready to leave the borders of the present
 State of New York. According to their usual custom in canoe navigation,
 they crept along the shore of the Ontario, revisiting an island at the
 eastern extremity of the lake, not unlikely the same place where Champlain
 had stopped to take the latitude a few weeks before. Crossing over from the
 island to the mainland on the north, they appear to have continued up the
 Cataraqui Creek east of Kingston, and, after a short portage, entered
 Loughborough Lake, a sheet of water then renowned as a resort of waterfowl
 in vast numbers and varieties. Having bagged all they desired, they
 proceeded inland twenty or thirty miles, to the objective point of their
 excursion, which was a famous hunting-ground for wild game. Here they
 constructed a deer-trap, an enclosure into which the unsuspecting animals
 were beguiled and from which it was impossible for them to escape.
 Deer-hunting was of all pursuits, if we except war, the most exciting to
 the Indians. It not only yielded the richest returns to their larder, and
 supplied more fully other domestic wants, but it possessed the element of
 fascination, which has always given zest and inspiration to the sportsman.
 They lingered here thirty-eight days, during which time they captured one
 hundred and twenty deer. They purposely prolonged their stay that the frost
 might seal up the marshes, ponds, and rivers over which they were to pass.
 Early in December they began to arrange into convenient packages their
 peltry and venison, the fat of which was to serve as butter in their rude
 huts during the icy months of winter. On the 4th of the month they broke
 camp and began their weary march, each savage bearing a burden of not less
 than a hundred pounds, while Champlain himself carried a package of about
 twenty. Some of them constructed rude sledges, on which they easily dragged
 their luggage over the ice and snow. During the progress of the journey, a
 warm current came sweeping up from the south, melted the ice, flooded the
 marshes, and for four days the overburdened and weary travellers struggled
 on, knee-deep in mud and water and slush. Without experience, a lively
 imagination alone can picture the toil, suffering, and exposure of a
 journey through the tangled forests and half-submerged bogs and marshes of
 Canada, in the most inclement season of the year.
 At length, on the 23d of December, after nineteen days of excessive toil,
 they arrived at Cahiagué, the chief town of the Hurons, the rendezvous of
 the allied tribes, whence they had set forth on the first of September,
 nearly four months before, on what may seem to us a bootless raid. To the
 savage warriors, however, it doubtless seemed a different thing. They had
 been enabled to bring home valuable provisions, which were likely to be
 important to them when an unsuccessful hunt might, as it often did, leave
 them nearly destitute of food. They had lost but a single man, and this was
 less than they had anticipated, and, moreover, was the common fortune of
 war. They had invaded the territory and made their presence felt in the
 very home of their enemies, and could rejoice in having inflicted upon them
 more injury than they had themselves received. Though they had not captured
 or annihilated them, they had done enough to inspire and fully sustain
 their own grovelling pride.
 To Champlain even, although the expedition had been accompanied by hardship
 and suffering and some disappointments, it was by no means a failure. He
 had explored an interesting and important region; he had gone where
 European feet had never trod, and had seen what European eyes had never
 seen; he had, moreover, planted the lilies of France in the chief Indian
 towns, and at all suitable and important points, and these were to be
 witnesses of possession and ownership in what his exuberant imagination saw
 as a vast French empire rising into power and opulence in the western
 It was now the last week in December, and the deep snows and piercing cold
 rendered it impossible for Champlain or even the allied warriors to
 continue their journey further. The Algonquins and Nipissings became guests
 of the Hurons for the winter, encamping within their principal walled town,
 or perhaps in some neighboring village not far removed.
 After the rest of a few days at Cahiagué, where he had been hospitably
 entertained, Champlain took his departure for Carhagouha, a smaller
 village, where his friend the Recollect Father, Joseph le Caron, had taken
 up his abode as the pioneer missionary to the Hurons. It was important for
 Le Caron to obtain all the information possible, not only of the Hurons,
 but of all the surrounding tribes, as he contemplated returning to France
 the next summer to report to his patrons upon the character, extent, and
 hopefulness of the missionary field which he had been sent out to explore.
 Champlain was happy to avail himself of his company in executing the
 explorations which he desired to make.
 They accordingly set out together on the 15th of January, and penetrated
 the trackless and show-bound forests, and, proceeding in a western
 direction, after a journey of two days reached a tribe called _Petuns_, an
 agricultural people, similar in habits and mode of life to the Hurons. By
 them they were hospitably received, and a great festival, in which all
 their neighbors participated, was celebrated in honor of their new guests.
 Having visited seven or eight of their villages, the explorers pushed
 forward still further west, when they came to the settlement of an
 interesting tribe, which they named _Cheveux-Relevés_, or the "lofty
 haired," an appellation suggested by the mode of dressing their hair.
 On their return from this expedition, they found, on reaching the
 encampment of the Nipissings, who were wintering in the Huron territory,
 that a disagreement had arisen between the Hurons and their Algonquin
 guests, which had already assumed a dangerous character. An Iroquois
 captive taken in the late war had been awarded to the Algonquins, according
 to the custom of dividing the prisoners among the several bands of allies,
 and, finding him a skilful hunter, they resolved to spare his life, and had
 actually adopted him as one of their tribe. This had offended the Hurons,
 who expected he would be put to the usual torture, and they had
 commissioned one of their number, who had instantly killed the unfortunate
 prisoner by plunging a knife into his heart. The assassin, in turn, had
 been set upon by the Algonquins and put to death on the spot. The
 perpetrators of this last act had regretted the occurrence, and had done
 what they could to heal, the breach by presents: but there was,
 nevertheless, a smouldering feeling of hostility still lingering in both
 parties, which might at any moment break out into open conflict.
 It was obvious to Champlain that a permanent disagreement between these two
 important allies would be a great calamity to themselves as well as
 disastrous to his own plans. It was his purpose, therefore, to bring them,
 if possible, to a cordial pacification. Proceeding cautiously and with
 great deliberation, he made himself acquainted with all the facts of the
 quarrel, and then called an assembly of both parties and clearly set before
 them in all its lights the utter foolishness of allowing a circumstance of
 really small importance to interfere with an alliance between two great
 tribes; an alliance necessary to their prosperity, and particularly in the
 war they were carrying on against their common enemy, the Iroquois. This
 appeal of Champlain was so convincing that when the assembly broke up all
 professed themselves entirely satisfied, although the Algonquins were heard
 to mutter their determination never again to winter in the territory of the
 Hurons, a wise and not unnatural conclusion.
 Champlain's constant intercourse with these tribes for many months in their
 own homes, his explorations, observations, and inquiries, enabled him to
 obtain a comprehensive, definite, and minute knowledge of their character,
 religion, government, and mode of life. As the fruit of these
 investigations, he prepared in the leisure of the winter an elaborate
 memoir, replete with discriminating details, which is and must always be an
 unquestionable authority on the subject of which it treats.
 77. De Poutrincourt obtained a confirmation from Henry IV. of the gift to
     him of Port Royal by De Monts, and proceeded to establish a colony
     there in 1608. In 1611, a Jesuit mission was planted by the Fathers
     Pierre Biard and Enemond Massé. It was chiefly patronized by a bevy of
     ladies, under the leadership of the Marchioness de Guerchville, in
     close association with Marie de Médicis, the queen-regent, Madame de
     Verneuil, and Madame de Soudis. Although De Poutrincourt was a devout
     member of the Roman Church, the missionaries were received with
     reluctance, and between them and the patentee and his lieutenant there
     was a constant and irrepressible discord. The lady patroness, the
     Marchioness de Guerchville, determined to abandon Port Royal and plant
     a new colony at Kadesquit, on the site of the present city of Bangor,
     in the State of Maine. A colony was accordingly organized, which
     included the fathers, Quentin and Lalemant with the lay brother,
     Gilbert du Thet, and arrived at La Hève in La Cadie, on the 6th of May,
     1613, under the conduct of Sieur de la Saussaye. From there they
     proceeded to Port Royal, took the two missionaries, Biard and Massé, on
     board, and coasted along the borders of Maine till they came to Mount
     Desert, and finally determined to plant their colony on that island. A
     short time after the arrival of the colony, before they were in any
     condition for defence, Captain Samuel Argall, from the English colony
     in Virginia, suddenly appeared, and captured and transported the whole
     colony, and subsequently that at Port Royal, on the alleged ground that
     they were intruders on English soil. Thus disastrously ended
     Poutrincourt's colony at Port Royal, and the Marchioness de
     Guerchville's mission at Mount Desert.--_Vide Voyages par le Sr. de
     Champlain_, Paris ed. 1632, pp. 98-114. _Shea's Charlevoix_, Vol. I.
     pp. 260-286.
 78. Champlain had tried to induce Madame de Guerchville to send her
     missionaries to Quebec, to avoid the obstacles which they had
     encountered at Port Royal; but, for the simple reason that De Monts was
     a Calvinist, she would not listen to it.--_Vide Shea's Charlevoix_,
     Vol. I. p. 274; _Voyages du Sieur de Champlain_, Paris ed. 1632, pp.
     112, 113.
 79. _Vide Histoire du Canada, par Gabriel Sagard_, Paris, 1636, pp. 11-12.
 80. _Carhagouha_, named by the French _Saint Gabriel_. Dr. J. C. Taché, of
     Ottawa, Canada, who has given much attention to the subject, fixes this
     village in the central part of the present township of Tiny, in the
     county of Simcoe.--_MS. Letter_, Feb. 11, 1880.
 81. _Cahiagué. Dr. Taché places this village on the extreme eastern limit
     of the township of Orillia. in the same county, in the bend of the
     river Severn, a short distance after it leaves Lake Couchiching. The
     Indian warriors do not appear to have launched their flotilla of bark
     canoes until they reached the fishing station at the outlet of Lake
     Simcoe This village was subsequently known as _Saint-Jean Baptiste_.
 82. The latitude of Champlain is here far from correct. It is not possible
     to determine the exact place at which it was taken. It could not,
     however have been at a point much below 44 deg. 7'.
 83. There has naturally been some difficulty in fixing satisfactorily the
     site of the Iroquois fort attacked by Champlain and his allies.
     The sources of information on which we are to rely in identifying the
     site of this fort are in general the same that we resort to in fixing
     any locality mentioned in his explorations, and are to be found in
     Champlain's journal of this expedition, the map contained in what is
     commonly called his edition of 1632, and the engraved picture of the
     fort executed by Champlain himself, which was published in connection
     with his journal. The information thus obtained is to be considered in
     connection with the natural features of the country through which the
     expedition passed, with such allowance for inexactness as the history,
     nature, and circumstances of the evidence render necessary.
     The map of 1632 is only at best an outline, drafted on a very small
     scale, and without any exact measurements or actual surveys. It
     pictures general features, and in connection with the journal may be of
     great service.
     Champlain's distances, as given in his journal, are estimates made
     under circumstances in which accuracy was scarcely possible. He was
     journeying along the border of lakes and over the face of the country,
     in company with some hundreds of wild savages, hunting and fishing by
     the way, marching in an irregular and desultory manner, and his
     statements of distances are wisely accompanied by very wide margins,
     and are of little service, taken alone, in fixing the site of an Indian
     town. But when natural features, not subject to change, are described,
     we can easily comprehend the meaning of the text.
     The engraving of the fort may or may not have been sketched by
     Champlain on the spot: parts of it may have been and doubtless were
     supplied by memory, and it is decisive authority, not in its minor, but
     in its general features.
     With these observations, we are prepared to examine the evidence that
     points to the site of the Iroquois fort.
     When the expedition, emerging from Quinté Bay, arrived at the eastern
     end of Lake Ontario, at the point where the lake ends and the River St.
     Lawrence begins, they crossed over the lake, passing large and
     beautiful islands. Some of these islands will be found laid down on the
     map of 1632. They then proceeded, a distance, according to their
     estimation, of about fourteen leagues, to the southern side of Lake
     Ontario, where they landed and concealed their canoes. The distance to
     the southern side of the lake is too indefinitely stated, even if we
     knew at what precise point the measurement began, to enable us to fix
     the exact place of the landing.
     They marched along the sandy shore about four leagues, and then struck
     inland. If we turn to the map of 1632, on which a line is drawn to
     rudely represent their course, we shall see that on striking inland
     they proceeded along the banks of a small river to which several small
     lakes or ponds are tributary. Little Salmon River being fed by numerous
     small ponds or lakes may well be the stream figured by Champlain. The
     text says they discovered an excellent country along the lake before
     they struck inland, with fine forest-trees, especially the chestnut,
     with abundance of vines. For several miles along Lake Ontario on the
     north-east of Little Salmon River the country answers to this
     description.--_Vide MS. Letters of the Rev. James Cross, D.D., LL.D._,
     and of S. D. Smith, Esq._, of Mexico, N.Y.
     The text says they, continued their course about twenty-five or thirty
     leagues. This again is indefinite, allowing a margin of twelve or
     fifteen miles; but the text also says they crossed a river flowing from
     a lake in which were certain beautiful islands, and moreover that the
     river so crossed discharged into Lake Ontario. The lake here referred
     to must be the Oneida, since that is the only one in the region which
     contains any islands whatever, and therefore the river they crossed
     must be the Oneida River, flowing from the lake of the same name into
     Lake Ontario.
     Soon after they crossed Oneida River, they met a band of savages who
     were going fishing, whom they made prisoners. This occurred, the text
     informs us, when they were about four leagues from the fort They were
     now somewhere south of Oneida Lake If we consult the map of 1632, we
     shall find represented on it an expanse of water from which a stream is
     represented as flowing into Lake Ontario, and which is clearly Oneida
     Lake, and south of this lake a stream is represented as flowing from
     the east in a northwesterly direction and entering this lake towards
     its western extremity, which must be Chittenango Creek or one of its
     branches. A fort or enclosed village is also figured on the map, of
     such huge dimensions that it subtends the angle formed by the creek and
     the lake, and appears to rest upon both. It is plain, however, from the
     text that the fort does not rest upon Oneida Lake; we may infer
     therefore that it rested upon the creek figured on the map, which from
     its course, as we have already seen, is clearly intended to represent
     Chittenango Creek or one of its branches. A note explanatory of the map
     informs us that this is the village where Champlain went to war against
     the "Antouhonorons," that is to say, the Iroquois. The text informs us
     that the fort was on a pond, which furnished a perpetual supply of
     water. We therefore look for the site of the ancient fort on some small
     body of water connected with Chittenango Creek.
     If we examine Champlain's engraved representation of the fort, we shall
     see that it is situated on a peninsula, that one side rests on a pond,
     and that two streams pass it, one on the right and one on the left, and
     that one side only has an unobstructed land-approach. These channels of
     water coursing along the sides are such marked characteristics of the
     fort as represented by Champlain, that they must be regarded as
     important features in the identification of its ancient site.
     On Nichols's Pond, near the northeastern limit of the township of
     Fenner in Madison County, N.Y., the site of an Indian fort was some
     years since discovered, identified as such by broken bits of pottery
     and stone implements, such as are usually found in localities of this
     sort. It is situated on a peculiarly formed peninsula, its northern
     side resting on Nichols's Pond, while a small stream flowing into the
     pond forms its western boundary, and an outlet of the pond about
     thirty-two rods east of the inlet, running in a south-easterly
     direction, forms the eastern limit of the fort. The outlet of this
     pond, deflecting to the east and then sweeping round to the north, at
     length finds its way in a winding course into Cowashalon Creek, thence
     into the Chittenango, through which it flows into Oneida Lake, at a
     point north-west of Nichols's Pond.
     If we compare the geographical situation of Champlain's fort as figured
     on his map of 1632, particularly with reference to Oneida Lake, we
     shall observe a remarkable correspondence between it and the site of
     the Indian fort at Nichols's Pond. Both are on the south of Oneida
     Lake, and both are on streams which flow into that lake by running in a
     north-westerly direction. Moreover, the site of the old fort at
     Nichols's Pond is situated on a peninsula like that of Champlain; and
     not only so, but it is on a peninsula formed by a pond on one side, and
     by two streams of water on two other opposite sides; thus fulfilling in
     a remarkable degree the conditions contained in Champlain's drawing of
     the fort.
     If the reader has carefully examined and compared the evidences
     referred to in this note, he will have seen that all the distinguishing
     circumstances contained in the text of Champlain's journal, on the map
     of 1632, and in his drawing of the fort, converge to and point out this
     spot on Nichols's Pond, as the probable site of the palisaded Iroquois
     town attacked by Champlain in 1615.
     We are indebted to General John S. Clark, of Auburn, N.Y., for pointing
     out and identifying the peninsula at Nichols's Pond as the site of the
     Iroquois fort.--_Vide Shea's Notes on Champlain's Expedition into
     Western New York in 1615, and the Recent Identification of the Fort_,
     by General John S Clark, _Pennsylvania Magazine of History_,
     Philadelphia, Vol. II. pp. 103-108; also _A Lost Point in History_, by
     L. W. Ledyard, _Cazenovia Republican_, Vol. XXV. No 47; _Champlain's
     Invasion of Onondaga_, by the Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, _Baldwinsville
     Gazette_, for June 27, 1879.
     We are indebted to Orsamus H. Marshall, Esq., of Buffalo, N.Y., for
     proving the site of the Iroquois fort to be in the neighborhood of
     Oneida Lake, and not at a point farther west as claimed by several
     authors.--_Vide Proceedings of the New York Historical Society_ for
     1849, p. 96; _Magazine of American History_, New York, Vol. I. pp.
     1-13, Vol. II. pp. 470-483.
 About the 20th of May, Champlain, accompanied by the missionary, Le Caron,
 escorted by a delegation of savages, set out from the Huron capital, in the
 present county of Simcoe, on their return to Quebec. Pursuing the same
 circuitous route by which they had come, they were forty days in reaching
 the Falls of St. Louis, near Montreal, where they found Pont Gravé, just
 arrived from France, who, with the rest, was much rejoiced at seeing
 Champlain, since a rumor had gone abroad that he had perished among the
 The party arrived at Quebec on the 11th of July. A public service of
 thanksgiving was celebrated by the Recollect Fathers for their safe return.
 The Huron chief, D'Arontal, with whom Champlain had passed the winter and
 who had accompanied him to Quebec, was greatly entertained and delighted
 with the establishment of the French, the buildings and other accessories
 of European life, so different from his own, and earnestly requested
 Champlain to make a settlement at Montreal, that his whole tribe might come
 and reside near them, safe under their protection against their Iroquois
 Champlain did not remain at Quebec more than ten days, during which he
 planned and put in execution the enlargement of their houses and fort,
 increasing their capacity by at least one third. This he found necessary to
 do for the greater convenience of the little colony, as well as for the
 occasional entertainment of strangers. He left for France on the 20th day
 of July, in company with the Recollect Fathers, Joseph le Caron and Denis
 Jamay, the commissary of the mission, taking with them specimens of French
 grain which had been produced near Quebec, to testify to the excellent
 quality of the soil. They arrived at Honfleur in France on the 10th of
 September, 1616.
 The exploration in the distant Indian territories which we have just
 described in the preceding pages was the last made by Champlain. He had
 plans for the survey of other regions yet unexplored, but the favorable
 opportunity did not occur. Henceforth he directed his attention more
 exclusively than he had hitherto done to the enlargement and strengthening
 of his colonial plantation, without such success, we regret to say, as his
 zeal, devotion, and labors fitly deserved. The obstacles that lay in his
 way were insurmountable. The establishment or factory, we can hardly call
 it a plantation, at Quebec, was the creature of a company of merchants.
 They had invested considerable sums in shipping, buildings, and in the
 employment of men, in order to carry on a trade in furs and peltry with the
 Indians, and they naturally desired remunerative returns. This was the
 limit of their purpose in making the investment. The corporators saw
 nothing in their organization but a commercial enterprise yielding
 immediate results. They were inspired by no generosity, no loyalty, or
 patriotism that could draw from them a farthing to increase the wealth,
 power, or aggrandizement of France. Under these circumstances, Champlain
 struggled on for years against a current which he could barely direct, but
 by no means control.
 Champlain made voyages to New France both in 1617 and in 1618. In the
 latter year, among the Indians who came to Quebec for the purpose of trade,
 appeared Étienne Brulé, the interpreter, who it will be remembered had been
 despatched in 1615, when Champlain was among the Hurons, to the
 Entouhonorons at Carantouan, to induce them to join in the attack of the
 Iroquois in central New York. During the three years that had intervened,
 nothing had been heard from him. Brulé related the story of his
 extraordinary adventures, which Champlain has preserved, and which may be
 found in the report of the voyage of 1618, in Volume III. of this work.
 At Quebec, he met numerous bands of Indians from remote regions, whom he
 had visited in former years, and who, in fulfilment of their promises, had
 come to barter their peltry for such commodities as suited their need or
 fancy, and to renew and strengthen their friendship with the French. By
 these repeated interviews, and the cordial reception and generous
 entertainment which he always gave them, the Indians dwelling on the upper
 waters of the Ottawa, along the borders of Lake Huron, or on the Georgian
 Bay, formed a strong personal attachment to Champlain, and yearly brought
 down their fleets of canoes heavily freighted with the valuable furs which
 they had diligently secured during the preceding winter. His personal
 influence with them, a power which he exercised with great delicacy,
 wisdom, and fidelity, contributed largely to the revenues annually obtained
 by the associated merchants.
 But Champlain desired more than this. He was not satisfied to be the agent
 and chief manager of a company organized merely for the purpose of trade.
 He was anxious to elevate the meagre factory at Quebec into the dignity and
 national importance of a colonial plantation. For this purpose he had
 tested the soil by numerous experiments, and had, from time to time,
 forwarded to France specimens of ripened grain to bear testimony to its
 productive quality. He even laid the subject before the Council of State,
 and they gave it their cordial approbation. By these means giving emphasis
 to his personal appeals, he succeeded at length in extorting from the
 company a promise to enlarge the establishment to eighty persons, with
 suitable equipments, farming implements, all kinds of feeds and domestic
 animals, including cattle and sheep. But when the time came, this promise
 was not fulfilled. Differences, bickerings, and feuds sprang up in the
 company. Some wanted one thing, and some wanted another. Even religion cast
 in an apple of discord. The Catholics wished to extend the faith of their
 church into the wilds of Canada, while the Huguenots desired to prevent it,
 or at least not to promote it by their own contributions. The company,
 inspired by avarice and a desire to restrict the establishment to a mere
 trading post, raised an issue to discredit Champlain. It was gravely
 proposed that he should devote himself exclusively to exploration, and that
 the government and trade should henceforth be under the direction and
 control of Pont Gravé. But Champlain was not a man to be ejected from an
 official position by those who had neither the authority to give it to him
 or the power to take it away. Pont Gravé was his intimate, long-tried, and
 trusted friend; and, while he regarded him with filial respect and
 affection, he could not yield, even to him, the rights and honors which had
 been accorded to him as a recognition, if not a reward, for many years of
 faithful service, which he had rendered under circumstances of personal
 hardship and danger. The king addressed a letter to the company, in which
 he directed them to aid Champlain as much as possible in making
 explorations, in settling the country, and cultivating the soil, while with
 their agents in the traffic of peltry there should be no interference. But
 the spirit of avarice could not be subdued by the mandate of the king. The
 associated merchants were still, obstinate. Champlain had intended to take
 his family to Canada that year, but he declined to make the voyage under
 any implication of a divided authority. The vessel in which he was to sail
 departed without him, and Pont Gravé spent the winter in charge of the
 company's affairs at Quebec.
 Champlain, in the mean time, took such active measures as seemed necessary
 to establish his authority as lieutenant of the viceroy, or governor of New
 France. He appeared before the Council of State at Tours, and after an
 elaborate argument and thorough discussion of the whole subject, obtained a
 decree ordering that he should have the command at Quebec and at all other
 settlements in New France, and that the company should abstain from any
 interference with him in the discharge of the duties of his office.
 The Prince de Condé having recently been liberated from an imprisonment of
 three years, governed by his natural avarice, was not unwilling to part
 with his viceroyalty, and early in 1620 transferred it, for the
 consideration of eleven thousand crowns, or about five hundred and fifty
 pounds sterling, to his brother-in-law, the Duke de Montmorency, [85] at
 that time high-admiral of France. The new viceroy appointed Champlain his
 lieutenant, who immediately prepared to leave for Quebec. But when he
 arrived at Honfleur, the company, displeased at the recent change, again
 brought forward the old question of the authority which the lieutenant was
 to exercise in New France. The time for discussion had, however, passed. No
 further words were now to be wasted. The viceroy sent them a peremptory
 order to desist from further interferences, or otherwise their ships,
 already equipped for their yearly trade, would not be permitted to leave
 port. This message from the high-admiral of France came with authority and
 had the desired effect.
 Early in May, 1620, Champlain sailed from Honfleur, accompanied by his wife
 and several Recollect friars, and, after a voyage of two months, arrived at
 Tadoussac, where he was cordially greeted by his brother-in-law, Eustache
 Boullé, who was very much astonished at the arrival of his sister, and
 particularly that she was brave enough to encounter the dangers of the
 ocean and take up her abode in a wilderness at once barren of both the
 comforts and refinements of European life.
 On the 11th of July, Champlain left Tadoussac for Quebec, where he found
 the whole establishment, after an absence of two years, in a condition of
 painful neglect and disorder. He was cordially received, and becoming
 ceremonies were observed to celebrate his arrival. A sermon composed for
 the occasion was delivered by one of the Recollect Fathers, the commission
 of the king and that of the viceroy appointing him to the sole command of
 the colony were publicly read, cannon were discharged, and the little
 populace, from loyal hearts, loudly vociferated _Vive le Roy!_
 The attention of the lieutenant was at first directed to restoration and
 repairs. The roof of the buildings no longer kept out the rain, nor the
 walls the piercing fury of the winds. The gardens were in a state of
 ruinous neglect, and the fields poorly and scantily cultivated. But the
 zeal, energy, and industry of Champlain soon put every thing in repair, and
 gave to the little settlement the aspect of neatness and thrift. When this
 was accomplished, he laid the foundations of a fortress, which he called
 the _Fort Saint Louis_, situated on the crest of the rocky elevation in the
 rear of the settlement, about a hundred and seventy-two feet above the
 surface of the river, a position which commanded the whole breadth of the
 St. Lawrence at that narrow point.
 This work, so necessary for the protection and safety of the colony,
 involving as it did some expense, was by no means satisfactory to the
 Company of Associates. [86] Their general fault-finding and chronic
 discontent led the Duke de Montmorency to adopt heroic measures to silence
 their complaints. In the spring of 1621, he summarily dissolved the
 association of merchants, which he denominated the "Company of Rouen and
 St. Malo," and established another in its place. He continued Champlain in
 the office of lieutenant, but committed all matters relating to trade to
 William de Caen, a merchant of high standing, and to Émeric de Caen the
 nephew of the former, a good naval captain. This new and hasty
 reorganization, arbitrary if not illegal, however important it might seem
 to the prosperity and success of the colony, laid upon Champlain new
 responsibilities and duties at once delicate and difficult to discharge.
 Though in form suppressed, the company did not yield either its existence
 or its rights. Both the old and the new company were, by their agents,
 early in New France, clamoring for their respective interests. De Caen, in
 behalf of the new, insisted that the lieutenant ought to prohibit all trade
 with the Indians by the old company, and, moreover, that he ought to seize
 their property and hold it as security for their unpaid obligations.
 Champlain, having no written authority for such a proceeding, and De Caen,
 declining to produce any, did not approve the measure and declined to act.
 The threats of De Caen that he would take the matter into his own hands,
 and seize the vessel of the old company commanded by Pont Gravé and then in
 port, were so violent that Champlain thought it prudent to place a body of
 armed men in his little fort still unfinished, until the fury of the
 altercation should subside. [87] This decisive measure, and time, the
 natural emollient of irritated tempers, soon restored peace to the
 contending parties, and each was allowed to carry on its trade unmolested
 by the other. The prudence of Champlain's conduct was fully justified, and
 the two companies, by mutual consent, were, the next year, consolidated
 into one.
 Champlain remained at Quebec four years before again returning to France.
 His time was divided between many local enterprises of great importance.
 His special attention was given to advancing the work on the unfinished
 fort, in order to provide against incursions of the hostile Iroquois, [88]
 who at one time approached the very walls of Quebec, and attacked
 unsuccessfully the guarded house of the Recollects on the St. Charles. [89]
 He undertook the reconstruction of the buildings of the settlement from
 their foundations. The main structure was enlarged to a hundred and eight
 feet [90] in length, with two wings of sixty feet each, having small towers
 at the four corners. In front and on the borders of the river a platform
 was erected, on which were placed cannon, while the whole was surrounded by
 a ditch spanned by drawbridges.
 Having placed every thing at Quebec in as good order as his limited means
 would permit, and given orders for the completion of the works which he had
 commenced, leaving Émeric de Caen in command, Champlain determined to
 return to France with his wife, who, though devoted to a religious life, we
 may well suppose was not unwilling to exchange the rough, monotonous, and
 dreary mode of living at Quebec for the more congenial refinements to which
 she had always been accustomed in her father's family near the court of
 Louis XIII. He accordingly sailed on the 15th of August, and arrived at
 Dieppe on the 1st of October, 1624. He hastened to St. Germain, and
 reported to the king and the viceroy what had occurred and what had been
 done during the four years of his absence.
 The interests of the two companies had not been adjusted and they were
 still in conflict. The Duke de Montmorency about this time negotiated a
 sale of his viceroyalty to his nephew, Henry de Levi, Duke de Ventadour.
 This nobleman, of a deeply religious cast of mind, had taken holy orders,
 and his chief purpose in obtaining the viceroyalty was to encourage the
 planting of Catholic missions in New France. As his spiritual directors
 were Jesuits, he naturally committed the work to them. Three fathers and
 two lay brothers of this order were sent to Canada in 1625, and others
 subsequently joined them. Whatever were the fruits of their labors, many of
 them perished in their heroic undertaking, manfully suffering the exquisite
 pains of mutilation and torture.
 Champlain was reappointed lieutenant, but remained in France two years,
 fully occupied with public and private duties, and in frequent
 consultations with the viceroy as to the best method of advancing the
 future interests of the colony. On the 15th of April, 1626, with Eustache
 Boullé, his brother-in-law, who had been named his assistant or lieutenant,
 he again sailed for Quebec, where he arrived on the 5th of July. He found
 the colonists in excellent health, but nevertheless approaching the borders
 of starvation, having nearly exhausted their provisions. The work that he
 had laid out to be done on the buildings had been entirely neglected. One
 important reason for this neglect, was the necessary employment of a large
 number of the most efficient laborers, for the chief part of the summer in
 obtaining forage for their cattle in winter, collecting it at a distance of
 twenty-five or thirty miles from the settlement. To obviate this
 inconvenience, Champlain took an early opportunity to erect a farm-house
 near the natural meadows at Cape Tourmente, where the cattle could be kept
 with little attendance, appointing at the same time an overseer for the
 men, and making a weekly visit to this establishment for personal
 inspection and oversight.
 The fort, which had been erected on the crest of the rocky height in the
 rear of the dwelling, was obviously too small for the protection of the
 whole colony in case of an attack by hostile savages. He consequently took
 it down and erected another on the same spot, with earthworks on the land
 side, where alone, with difficulty, it could be approached. He also made
 extensive repairs upon the storehouse and dwelling.
 During the winter of 1626-27, the friendly Indians, the Montagnais,
 Algonquins, and others gave Champlain much anxiety by unadvisedly entering
 into an alliance, into which they were enticed by bribes, with a tribe
 dwelling near the Dutch, in the present State of New York, to assist them
 against their old enemies, the Iroquois, with whom, however, they had for
 some time been at peace. Champlain justly looked upon this foolish
 undertaking as hazardous not only to the prosperity of these friendly
 tribes, but to their very existence. He accordingly sent his brother-in-law
 to Three Rivers, the rendezvous of the savage warriors, to convince them of
 their error and avert their purpose. Boullé succeeded in obtaining a delay
 until all the tribes should be assembled and until the trading vessels
 should arrive from France. When Émeric de Caen was ready to go to Three
 Rivers, Champlain urged upon him the great importance of suppressing this
 impending conflict with the Iroquois. The efforts of De Caen were, however,
 ineffectual. He forthwith wrote to Champlain that his presence was
 necessary to arrest these hostile proceedings. On his arrival, a grand
 council was assembled, and Champlain succeeded, after a full statement of
 all the evils that must evidently follow, in reversing their decision, and
 messengers were sent to heal the breach. Some weeks afterward news came
 that the embassadors were inhumanly massacred.
 Crimes of a serious nature were not unfrequently committed against the
 French by Indians belonging to tribes, with which they were at profound
 peace. On one occasion two men, who were conducting cattle by land from
 Cape Tourmente to Quebec, were assassinated in a cowardly manner. Champlain
 demanded of the chiefs that they should deliver to him the perpetrators of
 the crime. They expressed genuine sorrow for what had taken place, but were
 unable to obtain the criminals. At length, after consulting with the
 missionary, Le Caron, they offered to present to Champlain three young
 girls as pledges of their good faith, that he might educate them in the
 religion and manners of the French. The gift was accepted by Champlain, and
 these savage maidens became exceedingly attached to their foster-father, as
 we shall see in the sequel.
 The end of the year 1627 found the colony, as usual, in a depressed state.
 As a colony, it had never prospered. The average number composing it had
 not exceeded about fifty persons. At this time it may have been somewhat
 more, but did not reach a hundred. A single family only appears to have
 subsisted by the cultivation of the soil. [91] The rest were sustained by
 supplies sent from France. From the beginning disputes and contentions had
 prevailed in the corporation. Endless bickerings sprung up between the
 Huguenots and Catholics, each sensitive and jealous of their rights. [92]
 All expenditures were the subject of censorious criticism. The necessary
 repairs of the fort, the enlargement and improvement of the buildings from
 time to time, were too often resisted as unnecessary and extravagant. The
 company, as a mere trading association, was doubtless successful. Large
 quantities of peltry were annually brought by the Indians for traffic to
 the Falls of St. Louis, Three Rivers, Quebec, and Tadoussac. The average
 number of beaver-skins annually purchased and transported to France was
 probably not far from fifteen thousand to twenty thousand, and in a most
 favorable year it mounted up to twenty-two thousand. [93] The large
 dividends that they were able to make, intimated by Champlain to be not far
 from forty per centum yearly, were, of course, highly satisfactory to the
 company. They desired not to impair this characteristic of their
 enterprise. They had, therefore, a prime motive for not wishing to lay out
 a single unnecessary franc on the establishment. Their policy was to keep
 the expenses at the minimum and the net income at the maximum. Under these
 circumstances, nearly twenty years had elapsed since the founding of
 Quebec, and it still possessed only the character of a trading post, and
 not that of a colonial plantation. This progress was satisfactory neither
 to Champlain, to the viceroy, nor the council of state. In the view of
 these several interested parties, the time had come for a radical change in
 the organization of the company. Cardinal de Richelieu had risen by his
 extraordinary ability as a statesman, a short time anterior to this, into
 supreme authority, and had assumed the office of grand master and chief of
 the navigation and commerce of France. His sagacious and comprehensive mind
 saw clearly the intimate and interdependent relations between these two
 great national interests and the enlargement and prosperity of the French
 colonies in America. He lost no time in organizing measures which should
 bring them into the closest harmony. The company of merchants whose
 finances had been so skilfully managed by the Caens was by him at once
 dissolved. A new one was formed, denominated _La Compagnie de la
 Nouvelle-France_, consisting of a hundred or more members, and commonly
 known as the Company of the Hundred Associates. It was under the control
 and management of Richelieu himself. Its members were largely gentlemen in
 official positions about the court, in Paris, Rouen, and other cities of
 France. Among them were the Marquis Deffiat, superintendent of finances,
 Claude de Roquemont, the Commander de Razilly, Captain Charles Daniel,
 Sébastien Cramoisy, the distinguished Paris printer, Louis Houêl, the
 controller of the salt works in Brouage, Champlain, and others well known
 in public circles.
 The new company had many characteristics which seemed to assure the solid
 growth and enlargement of the colony. Its authority extended over the whole
 domain of New France and Florida. It provided in its organization for an
 actual capital of three hundred thousand livres. It entered into an
 obligation to send to Canada in 1628 from two to three hundred artisans of
 all trades, and within the space of fifteen years to transport four
 thousand colonists to New France. The colonists were to be wholly supported
 by the company for three years, and at the expiration of that period were
 to be assigned as much land as they needed for cultivation. The settlers
 were to be native-born Frenchmen, exclusively of the Catholic faith, and no
 foreigner or Huguenot was to be permitted to enter the country. [94] The
 charter accorded to the company the exclusive control of trade and all
 goods manufactured in New France were to be free of imposts on exportation.
 Besides these, it secured to the corporators other and various exclusive
 privileges of a semifeudal character, supposed, however, to contribute to
 the prosperity and growth of the colony.
 The organization of the company, having received the formal approbation of
 Richelieu on the 29th of April, 1627, was ratified by the Council of State
 on the 6th of May, 1628.
 84. The character of Étienne Brulé, either for honor or veracity, is not
     improved by his subsequent conduct. He appears in 1629 to have turned
     traitor, to have sold himself to the English, and to have piloted them
     up the river in their expedition against Quebec. Whether this conduct,
     base certainly it was, ought to affect the credibility of his story,
     the reader must judge. Champlain undoubtedly believed it when he first
     related it to him. He probably had no means then or afterwards of
     testing its truth. In the edition of 1632, Brulé's story is omitted. It
     does not necessarily follow that it was omitted because Champlain came
     to discredit the story, since many passages contained in his preceding
     publications are omitted in the edition of 1632, but they are not
     generally passages of so much geographical importance as this, if it be
     true. The map of 1632 indicates the country of the Carantouanais; but
     this information might have been obtained by Champlain from the Hurons,
     or the more western tribes which he visited during the winter of
     1615-16.--_Vide_ ed. 1632, p. 220.
 85. Henry de Montmorency II was born at Chantilly in 1595, and was beheaded
     at Toulouse Oct 30, 1632. He was created admiral at the age of
     seventeen He commanded the Dutch fleet at the siege of Rochelle. He
     made the campaigns of 1629 and 1630 in Piedmont, and was created a
     marshal of France after the victory of Veillane. He adopted the party
     of Gaston, the Duke of Orleans, and having excited the province of
     Languedoc of which he was governor to rebellion, he was defeated, and
     executed as guilty of high treason. He was the last scion of the elder
     branch of Montmorency and his death was a fatal blow to the reign of
 86. Among other annoyances which Champlain had to contend against was the
     contraband trade carried on by the unlicensed Rochellers, who not only
     carried off quantities of peltry, but even supplied the Indians with
     fire-arms and ammunition This was illegal, and endangered the safety of
     the colony--_Vide Voyages par De Champlain_, Paris, 1632, Sec Partie, p
 87. _Vide_ ed 1632, Sec Partie, Chap III.
 88. _Vide Hist. New France_, by Charlevoix, Shea's. Trans., Vol. II. p. 32.
 89. The house of the Recollects on the St. Charles was erected in 1620, and
     was called the _Conuent de Nostre Dame Dame des Anges_. The Father Jean
     d'Olbeau laid the first stone on the 3d of June of that year.--_Vide
     Histoire du Canada_ par Gabriel Sagard, Paris, 1636, Tross ed., 1866,
     p. 67; _Découvertes et Êtablissements des Français, dans Pouest et dans
     le sud de L'Amerique Septentrionale_ 1637, par Pierre Margry, Paris,
     1876, Vol. I. p. 7.
 90. _Hundred and eight feet_, dix-huiet toyses. The _toise_ here estimated
     at six feet. Compare _Voyages de Champlain_, Laverdière's ed., Vol. I.
     p. lii, and ed. 1632, Paris, Partie Seconde, p. 63.
 91. There was but one private house at Quebec in 1623, and that belonged to
     Madame Hébert, whose husband was the first to attempt to obtain a
     living by the cultivation of the soil.--_Vide Sagard, Hist, du Canada_,
     1636, Tross ed. Vol. I. p. 163 There were fifty-one inhabitants at
     Quebec in 1624, including men, women, and children.--_Vide Champlain_,
     ed. 1632, p. 76.
 92. _Vide Champlain_, ed. 1632, pp. 107, 108, for an account of the attempt
     on the part of the Huguenot, Émeric de Caen, to require his sailors to
     chaunt psalms and say prayers on board his ship after entering the
     River St. Lawrence, contrary to the direction of the Viceroy, the Duke
     de Ventadour. As two thirds of them were Huguenots, it was finally
     agreed that they should continue to say their prayers, but must omit
     their psalm-singing.
 93. Father Lalemant enumerates the kind of peltry obtained by the French
     from the Indians, and the amount, as follows. "En eschange ils
     emportent des peaux d'Orignac, de Loup Ceruier, de Renard, de Loutre,
     et quelquefois il s'en rencontre de noires, de Martre, de Blaireau et
     de Rat Musqué, mais principalement de Castor qui est le plus grand de
     leur gain. On m'a dit que pour vne année ils en auoyent emporté iusques
     à 22000. L'ordinaire de chaque année est de 15000, ou 20000, à une
     pistole la pièce, ce n'est pas mal allé."--_Vide Rélation de la
     Nouvelle France en l'Année_ 1626, Quebec ed. p. 5.
 94. This exclusiveness was characteristic of the age. Cardinal Richelieu
     and his associates were not qualified by education or by any tendency
     of their natures to inaugurate a reformation in this direction. The
     experiment of amalgamating Catholic and Huguenot in the enterprises of
     the colony had been tried but with ill success. Contentions and
     bickerings had been incessant, and subversive of peace and good
     neighborhood. Neither party had the spirit of practical toleration as
     we understand it, and which we regard at the present day as a priceless
     boon. Nor was it understood anywhere for a long time afterward. Even
     the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay did not comprehend it, and took
     heroic measures to exclude from their commonwealth those who differed
     from them in their religious faith. We certainly cannot censure them
     for not being in advance of their times. It would doubtless have been
     more manly in them had they excluded all differing from them by plain
     legal enactment, as did the Society of the Hundred Associates, rather
     than to imprison or banish any on charges which all subsequent
     generations must pronounce unsustained _Vide Memoir of the Rev. John
     Wheelwright_, by Charles H. Bell, Prince Society, ed. 1876, pp. 9-31
     _et passim; Hutchinson Papers_, Prince Society ed., 1865, Vol. I. pp.
     79-113. American _Criminal Trials_, by Peleg W. Chandler, Boston, 1841,
     Vol. I. p. 29.
 The Company of New France, or of the Hundred Associates, lost no time in
 carrying out the purpose of its organization. Even before the ratification
 of its charter by the council, four armed vessels had been fitted out and
 had already sailed under the command of Claude de Roquemont, a member of
 the company, to convoy a fleet of eighteen transports laden with emigrants
 and stores, together with one hundred and thirty-five pieces of ordnance to
 fortify their settlements in New France.
 The company, thus composed of noblemen, wealthy merchants, and officials of
 great personal influence, with a large capital, and Cardinal Richelieu, who
 really controlled and shaped the policy of France at that period, at its
 head possessed so many elements of strength that, in the reasonable
 judgment of men, success was assured, failure impossible. [95]
 To Champlain, the vision of a great colonial establishment in New France,
 that had so long floated before him in the distance, might well seem to be
 now almost within his grasp. But disappointment was near at hand. Events
 were already transpiring which were destined to cast a cloud over these
 brilliant hopes. A fleet of armed vessels was already crossing the
 Atlantic, bearing the English flag, with hostile intentions to the
 settlements in New France. Here we must pause in our narrative to explain
 the origin, character, and purpose of this armament, as unexpected to
 Champlain as it was unwelcome.
 The reader must be reminded that no boundaries between the French and
 English territorial possessions in North America at this time existed. Each
 of these great nations was putting forth claims so broad and extensive as
 to utterly exclude the other. By their respective charters, grants, and
 concessions, they recognized no sovereignty or ownership but their own.
 Henry IV. of France, made, in 1603, a grant to a favorite nobleman, De
 Monts, of the territory lying between the fortieth and the forty-sixth
 degrees of north latitude. James I. of England, three years later, in 1606,
 granted to the Virginia Companies the territory lying between the
 thirty-fourth and the forty-eighth degrees of north latitude, covering the
 whole grant made by the French three years before. Creuxius, a French
 historian of Canada, writing some years later than this, informs us that
 New France, that is, the French possessions in North America, then embraced
 the immense territory extending from Florida, or from the thirty-second
 degree of latitude, to the polar circle, and in longitude from Newfoundland
 to Lake Huron. It will, therefore, be seen that each nation, the English
 and the French, claimed at that time sovereignty over the same territory,
 and over nearly the whole of the continent of North America. Under these
 circumstances, either of these nations was prepared to avail itself of any
 favorable opportunity to dispossess the other.
 The English, however, had, at this period, particular and special reasons
 for desiring to accomplish this important object. Sir William Alexander,
 [96] Secretary of State for Scotland at the court of England, had received,
 in 1621, from James I., a grant, under the name of New Scotland, of a large
 territory, covering the present province of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and
 that part of the province of Quebec lying east of a line drawn from the
 head-waters of the River St. Croix in a northerly direction to the River
 St. Lawrence. He had associated with him a large number of Scottish
 noblemen and merchants, and was taking active measures to establish
 Scottish colonies on this territory. The French had made a settlement
 within its limits, which had been broken up and the colony dispersed in
 1613, by Captain Samuel Argall, under the authority of Sir Thomas Dale,
 governor of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia. A desultory and straggling
 French population was still in occupation, under the nominal governorship
 of Claude La Tour. Sir William Alexander and his associates naturally
 looked for more or less inconvenience and annoyance from the claims of the
 French. It was, therefore, an object of great personal importance and
 particularly desired by him, to extinguish all French claims, not only to
 his own grant, but to the neighboring settlement at Quebec. If this were
 done, he might be sure of being unmolested in carrying forward his colonial
 A war had broken out between France and England the year before, for the
 ostensible purpose, on the part of the English, of relieving the Huguenots
 who were shut up in the city of Rochelle, which was beleaguered by the
 armies of Louis XIII, under the direction of his prime minister, Richelieu,
 who was resolved to reduce this last stronghold to obedience. The existence
 of this war offered an opportunity and pretext for dispossessing the French
 and extinguishing their claims under the rules of war. This object could
 not be attained in any other way. The French were too deeply rooted to be
 removed by any less violent or decisive means. No time was, therefore, lost
 in taking advantage of this opportunity.
 Sir William Alexander applied himself to the formation of a company of
 London merchants who should bear the expense of fitting out an armament
 that should not only overcome and take possession of the French settlements
 and forts wherever they should be found, but plant colonies and erect
 suitable defences to hold them in the future. The company was speedily
 organized, consisting of Sir William Alexander, junior, Gervase Kirke,
 Robert Charlton, William Berkeley, and perhaps others, distinguished
 merchants of London. [97] Six ships were equipped with a suitable armament
 and letters of marque, and despatched on their hostile errand. Capt. David
 Kirke, afterwards Sir David, was appointed admiral of the fleet, who
 likewise commanded one of the ships. [98] His brothers, Lewis Kirke and
 Thomas Kirke, were in command of two others. They sailed under a royal
 patent executed in favor of Sir William Alexander, junior, son of the
 secretary, and others, granting exclusive authority to trade, seize, and
 confiscate French or Spanish ships and destroy the French settlements on
 the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence and parts adjacent.
 Kirke sailed, with a part if not the whole of his fleet, to Annapolis Basin
 in the Bay of Fundy, and took possession of the desultory French settlement
 to which we have already referred. He left a Scotch colony there, under the
 command of Sir William Alexander, junior, as governor. The fleet finally
 rendezvoused at Tadoussac, capturing all the French fishing barques, boats,
 and pinnaces which fell in its way on the coast of Nova Scotia, including
 the Island of Cape Breton.
 From Tadoussac, Kirke despatched a shallop to Quebec, in charge of six
 Basque fishermen whom he had recently captured. They were bearers of an
 official communication from the admiral of the English fleet to Champlain.
 About the same time he sent up the river, likewise, an armed barque, well
 manned, which anchored off Cape Tourmente, thirty miles below Quebec, near
 an outpost which had been established by Champlain for the convenience of
 forage and pasturage for cattle. Here a squad of men landed, took four men,
 a woman, and little girl prisoners, killed such of the cattle as they
 desired for use and burned the rest in the stables, as likewise two small
 houses, pillaging and laying waste every thing they could find. Having done
 this, the barque hastily returned to Tadoussac.
 We must now ask the reader to return with us to the little settlement at
 Quebec. The proceedings which we have just narrated were as yet unknown to
 Champlain. The summer of 1628 was wearing on, and no supplies had arrived
 from France. It was obvious that some accident had detained the transports,
 and they might not arrive at all. His provisions were nearly exhausted. To
 subsist without a resupply was impossible. Each weary day added a new
 keenness to his anxiety. A winter of destitution, of starvation and death
 for his little colony of well on towards a hundred persons was the painful
 picture that now constantly haunted his mind. To avoid this catastrophe, if
 possible, he ordered a boat to be constructed, to enable him to communicate
 with the lower waters of the gulf, where he hoped he might obtain
 provisions from the fishermen on the coast, or transportation for a part or
 the whole of his colony to France.
 On the 9th of July, two men came up from Cape Tourmente to announce that an
 Indian had brought in the news that six large ships had entered and were
 lying at anchor in the harbor of Tadoussac. The same day, not long after,
 two canoes arrived, in one of which was Foucher, the chief herds-man at
 Cape Tourmente, who had escaped from his captors, from whom Champlain first
 learned what had taken place at that outpost.
 Sufficiently allured of the character of the enemy, Champlain hastened to
 put the unfinished fort in as good condition as possible, appointing to
 every man in the little garrison his post, so that all might be ready for
 duty at a moment's warning. On the afternoon of the next day a small sail
 came into the bay, evidently a stranger, directing its course not through
 the usual channel, but towards the little River St. Charles. It was too
 insignificant to cause any alarm. Champlain, however, sent a detachment of
 arquebusiers to receive it. It proved to be English, and contained the six
 Basque fishermen already referred to, charged by Kirke with despatches for
 Champlain. They had met the armed barque returning to Tadoussac, and had
 taken off and brought up with them the woman and little girl who had been
 captured the day before at Cape Tourmente.
 The despatch, written two days before, and bearing date July 8th, 1628, was
 a courteous invitation to surrender Quebec into the hands of the English,
 assigning several natural and cogent reasons why if would be for the
 interest of all parties for them to do so. Under different circumstances,
 the reasoning might have had weight; but this English admiral had clearly
 conceived a very inadequate idea of the character of Champlain, if he
 supposed he would surrender his post, or even take it into consideration,
 while the enemy demanding it and his means of enforcing it were at a
 distance of at least a hundred miles. Champlain submitted the letter to
 Pont Gravé and the other gentlemen of the colony, and we concluded, he
 adds, that if the English had a desire to see us nearer, they must come to
 us, and not threaten us from so great a distance.
 Champlain returned an answer declining the demand, couched in language of
 respectful and dignified politeness. It is easy, however, to detect a tinge
 of sarcasm running through it, so delicate as not to be offensive, and yet
 sufficiently obvious to convey a serene indifference on the part of the
 French commander as to what the English might think it best to do in the
 sequel. The tone of the reply, the air of confidence pervading it, led
 Kirke to believe that the French were in a far better condition to resist
 than they really were. The English admiral thought it prudent to withdraw.
 He destroyed all the French fishing vessels and boats at Tadoussac, and
 proceeded down the gulf, to do the same along the coast.
 We have already alluded, in the preceding pages, to De Roquemont, the
 French admiral, who had been charged by the Company of the Hundred
 Associates to convoy a fleet of transports to Canada. Wholly ignorant of
 the importance of an earlier arrival at Quebec, he appears to have moved
 leisurely, and was now, with his whole fleet, lying at anchor in the Bay of
 Gaspé. Hearing that Kirke was in the gulf, he very unwisely prepared to
 give him battle, and moved out of the bay for that purpose. On the 18th of
 July the two armaments met. Kirke had six armed vessels under his command,
 while De Roquemont had but four. The conflict was unequal. The English
 vessels were unencumbered and much heavier than those of the French. De
 Roquemont [99] was soon overpowered and compelled to surrender His whole
 fleet of twenty-two vessels, with a hundred and thirty-five pieces of
 ordnance, together with supplies and colonists for Quebec, were all taken.
 Kirke returned to England laden with the rich spoils of his conquest,
 having practically accomplished, if not what he had intended, nevertheless
 that which satisfied the avarice of the London merchants under whose
 auspices the expedition had sailed. The capture of Quebec had from the
 beginning been the objective purpose of Sir William Alexander. The taking
 of this fleet and the cutting off their supplies was an important step in
 this undertaking. The conquest was thereby assured, though not completed.
 Champlain, having despatched his reply to Kirke, naturally supposed he
 would soon appear before Quebec to carry out his threat. He awaited this
 event with great anxiety About ten days after the messengers had departed,
 a young Frenchman, named Desdames, armed in a small boat, having been sent
 by De Roquemont, the admiral of the new company, to inform Champlain that
 he was then at Gaspé with a large fleet, bringing colonists, arms, stores,
 and provisions for the settlement. Desdames also stated that De Roquemont
 intended to attack the English, and that on his way he had heard the report
 of cannon, which led him to believe that a conflict had already taken
 place. Champlain heard nothing more from the lower St. Lawrence until the
 next May, when an Indian from Tadoussac brought the story of De Roquemont's
 In the mean time, Champlain resorted to every expedient to provide
 subsistence for his famishing colony. Even at the time when the surrender
 was demanded by the English, they were on daily rations of seven ounces
 each. The means of obtaining food were exceedingly slender. Fishing could
 not be prosecuted to any extent, for the want of nets, lines, and hooks. Of
 gunpowder they had less than fifty pounds, and a possible attack by
 treacherous savages rendered it inexpedient to expend it in hunting game.
 Moreover, they had no salt for curing or preserving the flesh of such wild
 animals as they chanced to take. The few acres cultivated by the
 missionaries and the Hébert family, and the small gardens about the
 settlement, could yield but little towards sustaining nearly a hundred
 persons for the full term of ten months, the shortest period in which they
 could reasonably expect supplies from France. A system of the utmost
 economy was instituted. A few eels were purchased by exchange of
 beaver-skins from the Indians. Pease were reduced to flour first by mortars
 and later by hand-mills constructed for the purpose, and made into a soup
 to add flavor to other less palatable food. Thus economising their
 resources, the winter finally wore away, but when the spring came, their
 scanty means were entirely exhausted. Henceforth their sole reliance was
 upon the few fish that could be taken from the river, and the edible roots
 gathered day by day from the fields and forests. An attempt was made to
 quarter some of the men upon the friendly Indians, but with little success.
 Near the last of June, thirty of the colony, men, women, and children,
 unwilling to remain longer at Quebec, were despatched to Gaspé, twenty of
 them to reside there with the Indians, the others to seek a passage to
 France by some of the foreign fishing-vessels on the coast. This detachment
 was conducted by Eustache Boullé, the brother-in-law of Champlain. The
 remnant of the little colony, disheartened by the gloomy prospect before
 them and exhausted by hunger, continued to drag out a miserable existence,
 gathering sustenance for the wants of each day, without knowing what was to
 supply the demands of the next.
 On the 19th of July, 1629, three English vessels were seen from the fort at
 Quebec, distant not more than three miles, approaching under full sail
 [100] Their purpose could not be mistaken. Champlain called a council, in
 which it was decided at once to surrender, but only on good terms;
 otherwise, to resist to their utmost with such slender means as they had.
 The little garrison of sixteen men, all his available force, hastened to
 their posts. A flag of truce soon brought a summons from the brothers,
 Lewis and Thomas Kirke, couched in courteous language, asking the surrender
 of the fort and settlement, and promising such honorable and reasonable
 terms as Champlain himself might dictate.
 To this letter Champlain [101] replied that he had not, in his present
 circumstances, the power of resisting their demand, and that on the morrow
 he would communicate the conditions on which he would deliver up the
 settlement; but, in the mean time, he must request them to retire beyond
 cannon-shot, and not attempt to land. On the evening of the same day the
 articles of capitulation were delivered, which were finally, with very
 little variation, agreed to by both parties.
 The whole establishment at Quebec, with all the movable property belonging
 to it, was to be surrendered into the hands of the English. The colonists
 were to be transported to France, nevertheless, by the way of England. The
 officers were permitted to leave with their arms, clothes, and the peltries
 belonging to them as personal property. The soldiers were allowed their
 clothes and a beaver-robe each; the missionaries, their robes and books.
 This agreement was subsequently ratified at Tadoussac by David Kirke, the
 admiral of the fleet, on the 19th of August, 1629.
 On the 20th of July, Lewis Kirke, vice-admiral, at the head of two hundred
 armed men, [102] took formal possession of Quebec, in the name of Charles
 I., the king of England. The English flag was hoisted over the Fort of St.
 Louis. Drums beat and cannon were discharged in token of the accomplished
 The English demeaned themselves with exemplary courtesy and kindness
 towards their prisoners of war. Champlain was requested to continue to
 occupy his accustomed quarters until he should leave Quebec; the holy mass
 was celebrated at his request; and an inventory of what was found in the
 habitation and fort was prepared and placed in his hand, a document which
 proved to be of service in the sequel. The colonists were naturally anxious
 as to the disposition of their lands and effects; but their fears were
 quieted when they were all cordially invited to remain in the settlement,
 assured, moreover, that they should have the same privileges and security
 of person and property which they had enjoyed from their own government.
 This generous offer of the English, and their kind and considerate
 treatment of them, induced the larger part of the colonists to remain.
 On the 24th of July, Champlain, exhausted by a year of distressing anxiety
 and care, and depressed by the adverse proceedings going on about him,
 embarked on the vessel of Thomas Kirke for Tadoussac, to await the
 departure of the fleet for England. Before reaching their destination, they
 encountered a French ship laden with merchandise and supplies, commanded by
 Émeric de Caen, who was endeavoring to reach Quebec for the purpose of
 trade and obtaining certain peltry and other property stored at that place,
 belonging to his uncle, William de Caen. A conflict was inevitable. The two
 vessels met. The struggle was severe, and, for a time, of doubtful result.
 At length the French cried for quarter. The combat ceased. De Caen asked
 permission to speak with Champlain. This was accorded by Kirke, who
 informed him, if another shot were fired, it would be at the peril of his
 life. Champlain was too old a soldier and too brave a man to be influenced
 by an appeal to his personal fears. He coolly replied, It will be an easy
 matter for you to take my life, as I am in your power, but it would be a
 disgraceful act, as you would violate your sacred promise. I cannot command
 the men in the ship, or prevent their doing their duty as brave men should;
 and you ought to commend and not blame them.
 De Caen's ship was borne as a prize into the harbor of Tadoussac, and
 passed for the present into the vortex of general confiscation.
 Champlain remained at Tadoussac until the fleet was ready to return to
 England. In the mean time, he was courteously entertained by Sir David
 Kirke. He was, however, greatly pained and disappointed that the admiral
 was unwilling that he should take with him to France two Indian girls who
 had been presented to him a year or two before, and whom he had been
 carefully instructing in religion and manners, and whom he loved as his own
 daughters. Kirke, however, was inexorable. Neither reason, entreaty, nor
 the tears of the unhappy maidens could move him. As he could not take them
 with him, Champlain administered to them such consolation as he could,
 counselling them to be brave and virtuous, and to continue to say the
 prayers that he had taught them. It was a relief to his anxiety at last to
 be able to obtain from Mr. Couillard, [103] one of the earliest settlers at
 Quebec, the promise that they should remain in the care of his wife, while
 the girls, on their part, assured him that they would be as daughters to
 their new foster-parents until his return to New France.
 Quebec having been provisioned and garrisoned, the fleet sailed for England
 about the middle of September, and arrived at Plymouth on the 20th of
 November. On the 27th, the missionaries and others who wished to return to
 France, disembarked at Dover, while Champlain was taken to London, where he
 arrived on the 29th.
 At Plymouth, Kirke learned that a peace between France and England had been
 concluded on the 24th of the preceding April, nearly three months before
 Quebec had been taken; consequently, every thing that had been done by this
 expedition must, sooner or later, be reversed. The articles of peace had
 provided that all conquests subsequent to the date of that instrument
 should be restored. It was evident that Quebec, the peltry, and other
 property taken there, together with the fishing-vessels and others captured
 in the gulf, must be restored to the French. To Kirke and the Company of
 London Merchants this was a bitter disappointment. Their expenditures had
 been large in the first instance; the prizes of the year before, the fleet
 of the Hundred Associates which they had captured, had probably all been
 absorbed in the outfit of the present expedition, comprising the six
 vessels and two pinnaces with which Kirke had sailed for the conquest of
 Quebec. Sir William Alexander had obtained, in the February preceding, from
 Charles I., a royal charter of THE COUNTRY AND LORDSHIP OF CANADA IN
 AMERICA, [104] embracing a belt of territory one hundred leagues in width,
 covering both sides of the St. Lawrence from its mouth to the Pacific
 Ocean. This charter with the most ample provisions had been obtained in
 anticipation of the taking of Quebec, and in order to pave the way for an
 immediate occupation and settlement of the country. Thus a plan for the
 establishment of an English colonial empire on the banks of the St.
 Lawrence had been deliberately formed, and down to the present moment
 offered every prospect of a brilliant success. But a cloud had now swept
 along the horizon and suddenly obscured the last ray of hope. The proceeds
 of their two years of incessant labor, and the large sums which they had
 risked in the enterprise, had vanished like a mist in the morning sun. But,
 as the cause of the English became more desperate, the hopes of the French
 revived. The losses of the latter were great and disheartening; but they
 saw, nevertheless, in the distance, the long-cherished New France of the
 past rising once more into renewed strength and beauty.
 On his arrival at London, Champlain immediately put himself in
 communication with Monsieur de Châteauneuf, the French ambassador, laid
 before him the original of the capitulation, a map of the country, and such
 other memoirs as were needed to show the superior claims of the French to
 Quebec on the ground both of discovery and occupation. [105] Many questions
 arose concerning the possession and ownership of the peltry and other
 property taken by the English, and, during his stay, Champlain contributed
 as far as possible to the settlement of these complications. It is somewhat
 remarkable that during this time the English pretended to hold him as a
 prisoner of war, and even attempted to extort a ransom from him, [106]
 pressing the matter so far that Champlain felt compelled to remonstrate
 against a demand so extraordinary and so obviously unjust, as he was in no
 sense a prisoner of war, and likewise to state his inability to pay a
 ransom, as his whole estate in France did not exceed seven hundred pounds
 After having remained a month in London, Champlain was permitted to depart
 for France, arriving on the last day of December.
 At Dieppe he met Captain Daniel, from whom he learned that Richelieu and
 the Hundred Associates had not been unmindful of the pressing wants of
 their colony at Quebec. Arrangements had been made early in the year 1629
 to send to Champlain succor and supplies, and a fleet had been organized to
 be conducted thither by the Commander Isaac de Razilly. While preparations
 were in progress, peace was concluded between France and England on the
 24th of April. It was, consequently, deemed unnecessary to accompany the
 transports by an armed force, and thereupon Razilly's orders were
 countermanded, while Captain Daniel of Dieppe, [107] whose services had
 been engaged, was sent forward with four vessels and a barque belonging to
 the company, to carry supplies to Quebec. A storm scattered his fleet, but
 the vessel under his immediate command arrived on the coast of the Island
 of Cape Breton, and anchored on the 18th of September, _novo stylo_, in the
 little harbor of Baleine, situated about six miles easterly from the
 present site of Louisburgh, now famous in the annals of that island. Here
 he was surprised to find a British settlement. Lord Ochiltrie, better known
 as Sir James Stuart, a Scottish nobleman, had obtained a grant, through Sir
 William Alexander, of the Island of Cape Breton, and had, on the 10th of
 the July preceding, _novo stylo_, planted there a colony of sixty persons,
 men, women, and children, and had thrown up for their protection a
 temporary fort. Daniel considered this an intrusion upon French soil. He
 accordingly made a bloodless capture of the fortress at Baleine, demolished
 it, and, sailing to the north and sweeping round to the west, entered an
 estuary which he says the savages called Grand Cibou? [108] where he
 erected a fort and left a garrison of forty men, with provisions and all
 necessary means of defence. Having set up the arms of the King of France
 and those of Cardinal Richelieu, erected a house, chapel, and magazine, and
 leaving two Jesuit missionaries, the fathers Barthélémy Vimond and
 Alexander de Vieuxpont, he departed, taking with him the British colonists,
 forty-two of whom he landed near Falmouth in England, and eighteen,
 including Lord Ochiltrie, he carried into France. This settlement at the
 Bay of St. Anne, or Port Dauphin, accidentally established and inadequately
 sustained, lingered a few years and finally disappeared.
 Having received the above narrative from Captain Daniel, Champlain soon
 after proceeded to Paris, and laid the whole subject of the unwarrantable
 proceedings of the English in detail before the king, Cardinal Richelieu,
 and the Company of New France, and urged the importance of regaining
 possession as early as possible of the plantation from which they had been
 unjustly ejected. The English king did not hesitate at an early day to
 promise the restoration of Quebec, and, in fact, after some delay, all
 places which were occupied by the French at the outbreak of the war. The
 policy of the English ministers appears, however, to have been to postpone
 the execution of this promise as long as possible, probably with the hope
 that something might finally occur to render its fulfilment unnecessary.
 Sir William Alexander, the Earl of Stirling, who had very great influence
 with Charles I, was particularly opposed to the restoration of the
 settlement on the shores of Annapolis Basin. This fell within the limits of
 the grant made to him in 1621, under the name of New Scotland, and a Scotch
 colony was now in occupation. He contended that no proper French plantation
 existed there at the opening of the war, and this was probably true; a few
 French people were, indeed, living there, but under no recognized,
 certainly no actual, authority or control of the crown of France, and
 consequently they were under no obligation to restore it. But Charles I had
 given his word that all places taken by the English should be restored as
 they were before the war, and no argument or persuasions could change his
 resolution to fulfil his promise. It was not, however, till after the lapse
 of more than two years, owing, chiefly, to the opposition of Sir William
 Alexander, that the restoration of Quebec and the plantation on Annapolis
 Basin was fully assured by the treaty of St Germain en Laye, bearing date
 March 29, 1632. The reader must be reminded that the text of the treaty
 just mentioned and numerous contemporary documents show that the
 restorations demanded by the French and granted by the English only related
 to the places occupied by the French before the outbreak of the war, and
 not to Canada or New France or to any large extent of provincial territory
 whatever. [109] When the restorations were completed, the boundary lines
 distinguishing the English and French possessions in America were still
 unsettled, the territorial rights of both nations were still undefined, and
 each continued, as they had done before the war, to claim the same
 territory as a part of their respective possessions. Historians, giving to
 this treaty a superficial examination, and not considering it in connection
 with contemporary documents, have, from that time to the present, fallen
 into the loose and unauthorized statement that, by the treaty of St.
 Germain en Laye, the whole domain of Canada or New France was restored to
 the French. Had the treaty of St. Germain en Laye, by which Quebec was
 restored to the French, fixed accurately the boundary lines between the two
 countries, it would probably have saved the expenditure of money and blood,
 which continued to be demanded from time to time until, after a century and
 a quarter, the whole of the French possessions were transferred, under the
 arbitration of war, to the English crown.
 95. The association was a joint-stock company Each corporator was bound to
     pay in three thousand livres, and as there were over a hundred, the
     quick capital amounted to over 300,000 livres--_Vide Mercure François_,
     Paris, 1628, Tome XIV. p 250. For a full statement of the organization
     and constitution of the Company of New France, _Vide Mercure Francois_,
     Tome XIV pp 232-267 _Vide_ also _Charlevoix's Hist. New France_, Shea's
     Trans Vol. II. pp. 39-44.
 96. _Vide Sir William Alexander and American Colonization_, Prince Society,
     Boston, 1873.
 97. _Vide Colonial Papers_, Vol. V. 87, III. We do not find the mention of
     any others as belonging to the Company of Merchant Adventurers to
 98. Sir David Kirke was one of five brothers, the sons of Gervase or
     Gervais Kirke, a merchant of London, and his wife, Elizabeth Goudon of
     Dieppe in France. The grandfather of Sir David was Thurston Kirke of
     Norton, a small town in the northern part of the county of Derby, known
     as the birthplace of the sculptor Chantrey. This little hamlet had been
     the home of the Kirkes for several generations. Gervase Kirke had, in
     1629, resided in Dieppe for the most of the forty years preceding, and
     his children were probably born there. Sir David Kirke was married to
     Sarah, daughter of Sir Joseph Andrews. In early life he was a wine-
     merchant at Bordeaux and Cognac. He was knighted by Charles I in 1633,
     in recognition of his services in taking Quebec. On the 13th of
     November, 1637, he received a grant of "the whole continent, island, or
     region called Newfoundland." In 1638, he took up his residence at
     Ferryland, Newfoundland, in the house built by Lord Baltimore. He was a
     friend and correspondent of Archbishop Laud, to whom he wrote, in 1639,
     "That the ayre of Newfoundland agrees perfectly well with all God's
     creatures, except Jesuits and schismatics." He remained in Newfoundland
     nearly twenty years, where he died in 1655-56, having experienced many
     disappointments occasioned by his loyalty to Charles I.--_Vide Colonial
     Papers_, Vol. IX. No. 76; _The First English Conquest of Canada_, by
     Henry Kirke, London, 1871, _passim; Les Voyages du Sieur de Champlain_,
     Paris ed. 1632, p. 257.
 99. Champlain criticises with merited severity the conduct of De Roquemont,
     and closes in the following words "Le merite d'un bon Capitaine n'est
     pas seulement au courage, mais il doit estre accompagné de prudence,
     qui est ce qui les fait estimer, comme estant suiuy de ruses,
     stratagesmes, & d'inventions plusieurs auec peu ont beaucoup fait, & se
     sont rendus glorieux & redoutables"--_Vide Les Voyages du Sieur de
     Champlain_, ed 1632, part II p. 166.
 100. On the 13th of March, 1629, letters of marque were issued to Capt.
      David Kirke, Thomas Kirke, and others, in favor of the "Abigail," 300
      tons, the "William," 200 tons, the "George" of London, and the
 101. This correspondence is preserved by Champlain.--_Vide Les Voyages par
      le Sieur de Champlain_, Paris, 1632, pp. 215-219.
 102. _Vide Abstract of the Deposition of Capt. David Kirke and others_.
      Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, 1574-1660, p. 103.
 103. _Couillard_ Champlain writes _Coulart_ This appears to have been
      William Couillard, the son in-law of Madame Hébert and one of the five
      families which remained at Quebec after it was taken by the
      English--_Vide Laverdière's note, Oeuvres de Champlain_, Quebec ed
      Vol. VI p. 249.
 104. An English translation of this charter from the Latin original was
      published by the Prince Society in 1873 _Vide Sir William Alexander
      and American Colonization_, Prince Society, Boston, pp. 239-249.
 105. Champlain published, in 1632, a brief argument setting forth the
      claims of the French, which he entitles. _Abregé des Descouuertures de
      la Nouuelle France, tant de ce que nous auons descouuert comme aussi
      les Anglais, depuis les Virgines iusqu'au Freton Dauis, & de cequ'eux
      & nous pouuons pretendre suiuant le rapport des Historiens qui en ont
      descrit, que ie rapporte cy dessous, qui feront iuger à un chacun du
      tout sans passion.--Vide_ ed. 1632, p. 290. In this paper he narrates
      succinctly the early discoveries made both by the French and English
      navigators, and enforces the doctrine of the superior claims of the
      French with clearness and strength. It contains, probably, the
      substance of what Champlain placed at this time in the hands of the
      French embassador in London.
 106. It is difficult to conceive on what ground this ransom was demanded
      since the whole proceedings of the English against Quebec were
      illegal, and contrary to the articles of peace which had just been
      concluded. That such a demand was made would be regarded as
      incredible, did not the fact rest upon documentary evidence of
      undoubted authority.--_Vide Laverdière's_ citation from State Papers
      Office, Vol. V. No. 33. Oeuvres de Champlain, Quebec ed, Vol. VI. p
 107. _Vide Relation du Voyage fait par le Capitaine Daniel de Dieppe, année
      1629, Les Voyages du Sieur de Champlain_, Paris, 1632, p. 271. Captain
      Daniel was enrolled by Creuxius in the Society of New France or the
      Hundred Associates, as _Carolus Daniel, nauticus Capitaneus_. _Vide
      Historia Canadensis_ for the names of the Society of the Hundred
 108. _Cibou_. Sometimes written Chibou. "Cibou means," says Mr. J. Hammond
      Trumball, "simply river in all eastern Algonkin languages."--_MS.
      letter_. Nicholas Denys, in his very full itinerary of the coast of
      the island of Cape Breton speaks also of the _entree du petit Chibou
      ou de Labrador_. This _petit Chibou_, according to his description, is
      identical with what is now known as the Little Bras d'Or, or smaller
      passage to Bras d'Or Lake. It seems probable that the great Cibou of
      the Indians was applied originally by them to what we now call the
      Great Bras d'Or, or larger passage to Bras d'Or Lake. It is plain,
      however, that Captain Daniel and other early writers applied it to an
      estuary or bay a little further west than the Great Bras d'Or,
      separated from it by Cape Dauphin, and now known as St. Anne's Bay. It
      took the name of St. Anne's immediately on the planting of Captain
      Daniel's colony, as Champlain calls it, _l'habitation saincte Anne en
      l'ile du Cap Breton_ in his relation of what took place in
      1631.--_Voyages_, ed. 1632, p. 298. A very good description of it by
      Père Perrault may be found in _Jesuit Relations_, 1635, Quebec ed p.
      42.--_Vide_, also, _Description de l'Amerique Septentrionale par
      Monsieur Denys_, Paris, 1672, p. 155, where is given an elaborate
      description of St Anne's Harbor. _Gransibou_ may be seen on
      Champlain's map of 1632, but the map is too indefinite to aid us in
      fixing its exact location.
 109. _Vide Sir William Alexander and American Colonization_, Prince
      Society, 1873, pp. 66-72.--_Royal Letters, Charters, and Tracts
      relating to the Colonisation of New Scotland_, Bannatyne Club,
      Edinburgh, 1867, p. 77 _et passim_.
 In breaking up the settlement at Quebec, the losses of the De Caens were
 considerable, and it was deemed an act of justice to allow them an
 opportunity to retrieve them, at least in part; and, to enable them to do
 this, the monopoly of the fur-trade in the Gulf of St. Lawrence was granted
 to them for one year, and, on the retirement of the English, Émeric de
 Caen, as provisional governor for that period, took formal possession of
 Quebec on the 13th of July, 1632. In the mean time, Champlain remained in
 France, devoting himself with characteristic energy to the interests of New
 France. Beside the valuable counsel and aid which he gave regarding the
 expedition then fitting out and to be sent to Quebec by the Company of New
 France, he prepared and carried through the press an edition of his
 Voyages, comprising extended extracts from what he had already published,
 and a continuation of the narrative to 1631. He also published in the same
 volume a Treatise on Navigation, and a Catechism translated from the French
 by one of the Fathers into the language of the Montagnais. [110]
 On the 23d of March, 1633, having again been commissioned as governor,
 Champlain sailed from Dieppe with a fleet of three vessels, the "Saint
 Pierre," the "Saint Jean," and the "Don de Dieu," belonging to the Company
 of New France, conveying to Quebec a large number of colonists, together
 with the Jesuit fathers, Enemond Massé and Jean de Brébeuf. The three
 vessels entered the harbor of Quebec on the 23d of May. On the announcement
 of Champlain's arrival, the little colony was all astir. The cannon at the
 Fort St. Louis boomed forth their hoarse welcome of his coming. The hearts
 of all, particularly of those who had remained at Quebec during the
 occupation of the English, were overflowing with joy. The three years'
 absence of their now venerable and venerated governor, and the trials,
 hardships, and discouragements through which they had in the mean time
 passed, had not effaced from their minds the virtues that endeared him to
 their hearts. The memory of his tender solicitude in their behalf, his
 brave example of endurance in the hour of want and peril, and the sweetness
 of his parting counsels, came back afresh to awaken in them new pulsations
 of gratitude. Champlain's heart was touched by his warm reception and the
 visible proofs of their love and devotion. This was a bright and happy day
 in the calendar of the little colony.
 Champlain addressed himself with his old zeal and a renewed strength to
 every interest that promised immediate or future good results. He at once
 directed the renovation and improvement of the habitation and fort, which,
 after an occupation of three years by aliens, could not be delayed. He then
 instituted means, holding councils and creating a new trading-post, for
 winning back the traffic of the allied tribes, which had been of late drawn
 away by the English, who continued to steal into the waters of the St.
 Lawrence for that purpose. At an early day after his re-establishment of
 himself at Quebec, Champlain proceeded to build a memorial chapel in close
 proximity to the fort which he had erected some years before on the crest
 of the rocky eminence that overlooks the harbor. He gave it the appropriate
 and significant name, NOTRE DAME DE RECOUVRANCE, in grateful memory of the
 recent return of the French to New France. [111] It had long been an ardent
 desire of Champlain to establish a French settlement among the Hurons, and
 to plant a mission there for the conversion of this favorite tribe to the
 Christian faith. Two missionaries, De Brébeuf and De Nouë, were now ready
 for the undertaking. The governor spared no pains to secure for them a
 favorable reception, and vigorously urged the importance of their mission
 upon the Hurons assembled at Quebec. [112] But at the last, when on the eve
 of securing his purpose, complications arose and so much hostility was
 displayed by one of the chiefs, that he thought it prudent to advise its
 postponement to a more auspicious moment. With these and kindred
 occupations growing out of the responsibilities of his charge, two years
 soon passed away.
 During the summer of 1635, Champlain addressed an interesting and important
 letter to Cardinal de Richelieu, whose authority at that time shaped both
 the domestic and foreign policy of France. In it the condition and
 imperative wants of New France are clearly set forth. This document was
 probably the last that Champlain ever penned, and is, perhaps, the only
 autograph letter of his now extant. His views of the richness and possible
 resources of the country, the vast missionary field which it offered, and
 the policy to be pursued, are so clearly stated that we need offer no
 apology for giving the following free translation of the letter in these
 pages. [113]
 MONSEIGNEUR,--The honor of the commands that I have received from your
 Eminence has inspired me with greater courage to render to you every
 possible service with all the fidelity and affection that can be desired
 from a faithful servant. I shall spare neither my blood nor my life
 whenever the occasion shall demand them.
 There are subjects enough in these regions, if your Eminence, after
 considering the character of the country, shall desire to extend your
 authority over them. This territory is more than fifteen hundred leagues in
 length, lying between the same parallels of latitude as our own France. It
 is watered by one of the finest rivers in the world, into which empty many
 tributaries more than four hundred leagues in length, beautifying a country
 inhabited by a vast number of tribes. Some of them are sedentary in their
 mode of life, possessing, like the Muscovites, towns and villages built of
 wood; others are nomadic, hunters and fishermen, all longing to welcome the
 French and religious fathers, that they may be instructed in our faith.
 The excellence of this country cannot be too highly estimated or praised,
 both as to the richness of the soil, the diversity of the timber such as we
 have in France, the abundance of wild animals, game, and fish, which are of
 extraordinary magnitude. All this invites you, Monseigneur, and makes it
 seem as if God had created you above all your predecessors to do a work
 here more pleasing to Him than any that has yet been accomplished.
 For thirty years I have frequented this country, and have acquired a
 thorough knowledge of it, obtained from my own observation and the
 information given me by the native inhabitants. Monseigneur, I pray you to
 pardon my zeal, if I say that, after your renown has spread throughout the
 East, you should end by compelling its recognition in the West.
 Expelling the English from Quebec has been a very important beginning, but,
 nevertheless, since the treaty of peace between the two crowns, they have
 returned to carry on trade and annoy us in this river; declaring that it
 was enjoined upon them to withdraw, but not to remain away, and that they
 have their king's permission to come for the period of thirty years. But,
 if your Eminence wills, you can make them feel the power of your authority.
 This can, furthermore, be extended at your pleasure to him who has come
 here to bring about a general peace among these peoples, who are at war
 with a nation holding more than four hundred leagues in subjection, and who
 prevent the free use of the rivers and highways. If this peace were made,
 we should be in complete and easy enjoyment of our possessions. Once
 established in the country, we could expel our enemies, both English and
 Flemings, forcing them to withdraw to the coast, and, by depriving them of
 trade with the Iroquois, oblige them to abandon the country entirely. It
 requires but one hundred and twenty men, light-armed for avoiding arrows,
 by whose aid, together with two or three thousand savage warriors, our
 allies, we should be, within a year, absolute masters of all these peoples,
 and, by establishing order among them, promote religious worship and secure
 an incredible amount of traffic.
 The country is rich in mines of copper, iron, steel, brass, silver, and
 other minerals which may be found here.
 The cost, Monseigneur, of one hundred and twenty men is a trifling one to
 his Majesty, the enterprise the most noble that can be imagined.
 All for the glory of God, whom I pray with my whole heart to grant you
 ever-increasing prosperity, and to make me, all my life, Monseigneur,
    Your most humble,
      Most faithful,
        and Most obedient servant,
 AT QUEBEC, IN NEW FRANCE, the 15th of August, 1635.
 In this letter will be found the key to Champlain's war-policy with the
 Iroquois, no where else so fully unfolded. We shall refer to this subject
 in the sequel.
 Early in October, when the harvest of the year had ripened and been
 gathered in, and the leaves had faded and fallen, and the earth was mantled
 in the symbols of general decay, in sympathy with all that surrounded him,
 in his chamber in the little fort on the crest of the rocky promontory at
 Quebec, lay the manly form of Champlain, smitten with disease, which was
 daily breaking down the vigor and strength of his iron constitution. From
 loving friends he received the ministrations of tender and assiduous care.
 But his earthly career was near its end. The bowl had been broken at the
 fountain. Life went on ebbing away from week to week. At the end of two
 months and a half, on Christmas day, the 25th of December, 1635, his spirit
 passed to its final rest.
 This otherwise joyous festival was thus clouded with a deep sorrow. No
 heart in the little colony was untouched by this event. All had been drawn
 to Champlain, so many years their chief magistrate and wise counsellor, by
 a spontaneous and irresistible respect, veneration, and love. It was meet,
 as it was the universal desire, to crown him, in his burial, with every
 honor which, in their circumstances, they could bestow. The whole
 population joined in a mournful procession. His spiritual adviser and
 friend, Father Charles Lalemant, performed in his behalf the last solemn
 service of the church. Father Paul Le Jeune pronounced a funeral discourse,
 reciting his virtues, his fidelity to the king and the Company of New
 France, his extraordinary love and devotion to the families of the colony,
 and his last counsels for their continued happiness and welfare. [114]
 When these ceremonies were over his body was piously and tenderly laid to
 rest, and soon after a tomb was constructed for its reception expressly in
 his honor as the benefactor of New France. [115] The place of his burial
 [116] was within the little chapel subsequently erected, and which was
 reverently called _La Chapelle de M. de Chiamplain_, in grateful memory of
 him whose body reposed beneath its sheltering walls.
 110. This catechism, bearing the following title, is contained on fifteen
      pages in the ed. of 1632: _Doctrine Chrestienne, du R. P. Ledesme de
      la Compagnie de Jesus. Traduîte en Langage Canadois, autre que celuy
      des Montagnars, pour la Conversion des habitans dudit pays. Par le R.
      P. Breboeuf de la mesme Compagnie_. It is in double columns, one side
      Indian and the other French.
 111. The following extracts will show that the chapel was erected in 1633,
      that it was built by Champlain, and that it was called Notre Dame de
      Nous les menasmes en nostre petite chapelle, qui a commencé ceste
      année à l'embellir.--_Vide Relations des Jésuites_. Québec ed. 1633,
      p. 30.
      La sage conduitte et la prudence de Monsieur de Champlain Gouuerneur
      de Kebec et du fleuve sainct Laurens, qui nous honore de sa bien-
      veillance, retenant vn chacun dans son devoir, a fait que nos paroles
      et nos prédications ayent esté bien receuens, et la Chapelle qu'il a
      fait dresser proche du fort a l'honneur de nostre Dame, &c.--_Idem_,
      1634, p. 2.
      La troisiéme, que nous allons habiter cette Autome, la Residence de
      Nostre-dame de Recouvrance, à Kebec proche du Fort.--_Idem_, 1635, p.
 112. According to Père Le Jeune, from five to seven hundred Hurons had
      assembled at Quebec in July, 1633, bringing their canoes loaded with
      merchandise.--_Vide Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed. 1633, p. 34.
 113. This letter was printed in oeuvres de Champlain, Quebec ed. Vol. VI.
      _Pièces Justificatives_, p 35. The original is at Paris, in the
      Archives of Foreign Affairs.
 114. _Vide Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed. 1636, p. 56. _Creuxius,
      Historia Canadensis_, pp. 183-4.
 115. Monsieur le Gouverneur, qui estimoit sa vertu, desira qu'il fust
      enterré prés du corps de feu Monsieur de Champlain, qui est dans vn
      sepulchre particulier, erigé exprés pour honorer la memoire de ce
      signalé personnage qui a tant obligé la Nouuelle France.--_Vide
      Relations des Jésuites_, Quebec ed. 1643, p. 3.
 116. The exact spot where Champlain was buried is at this time unknown.
      Historians and antiquaries have been much interested in its discovery.
      In 1866, the Abbés Laverdière and Casgrain were encouraged to believe
      that their searches had been crowned with success. They published a
      statement of their discovery. Their views were controverted in several
      critical pamphlets that followed. In the mean time, additional
      researches have been made. The theory then broached that his burial
      was in the Lower Town, and in the Recollect chapel built in 1615, has
      been abandoned. The Abbé Casgrain, in an able discussion of this
      subject, in which he cites documents hitherto unpublished, shows that
      Champlain was buried in a tomb within the walls of a chapel erected by
      his successor in the Upper Town, and that this chapel was situated
      somewhere within the court-yard of the present post-office. Père Le
      Jeune, who records the death of Champlain in his Relation of 1636,
      does not mention the place of his burial; but the Père Vimont, in his
      Relation of 1643, in speaking of the burial of Père Charles Raymbault,
      says, the "Governor desired that he should be buried near the _body of
      the late Monsieur de Champlain_, which is in a particular tomb erected
      expressly to honor the memory of that distinguished personage, who had
      placed New France under such great obligation." In the Parish Register
      of Notre Dame de Quebec, is the following entry: "The 22d of October
      (1642), was interred _in the Chapel of M. De Champlain_ the Père
      Charles Rimbault." It is plain, therefore, that Champlain was buried
      in what was then commonly known as _the Chapel of M. de Champlain_. By
      reference to ancient documents or deeds (one bearing date Feb. 10,
      1649, and another 22d April, 1652, and in one of which the Chapel of
      Champlain is mentioned as contiguous to a piece of land therein
      described), the Abbé Casgrain proves that the _Chapel of M. de
      Champlain_ was within the square where is situated the present
      post-office at Quebec, and, as the tomb of Champlain was within the
      chapel, it follows that Champlain was buried somewhere within the
      post-office square above mentioned.
      Excavations in this square have been made, but no traces of the walls
      or foundations of the chapel have been found. In the excavations for
      cellars of the houses constructed along the square, the foundations of
      the chapel may have been removed. It is possible that when the chapel
      was destroyed, which was at a very early period, as no reference to
      its existence is found subsequent to 1649, the body of Champlain and
      the others buried there may have been removed, and no record made of
      the removal. The Abbé Casgrain expresses the hope that other
      discoveries may hereafter be made that shall place this interesting
      question beyond all doubt.--_Vide Documents Inédits Relatifs au
      Tombeau de Champlain_, par l'Abbé H. R. Casgrain, _L'Opinion
      Publique_, Montreal, 4 Nov. 1875.
 As Champlain had lived, so he died, a firm and consistent member of the
 Roman church. In harmony with his general character, his religious views
 were always moderate, never betraying him into excesses, or into any merely
 partisan zeal. Born during the profligate, cruel, and perfidious reign of
 Charles IX., he was, perhaps, too young to be greatly affected by the evils
 characteristic of that period, the massacre of St. Bartholomew's and the
 numberless vices that swept along in its train. His youth and early
 manhood, covering the plastic and formative period, stretched through the
 reign of Henry III., in which the standards of virtue and religion were
 little if in any degree improved. Early in the reign of Henry IV., when he
 had fairly entered upon his manhood, we find him closely associated with
 the moderate party, which encouraged and sustained the broad, generous, and
 catholic principles of that distinguished sovereign.
 When Champlain became lieutenant-governor of New France, his attention was
 naturally turned to the religious wants of his distant domain. Proceeding
 cautiously, after patient and prolonged inquiry, he selected missionaries
 who were earnest, zealous, and fully consecrated to their work. And all
 whom he subsequently invited into the field were men of character and
 learning, whose brave endurance of hardship, and manly courage amid
 numberless perils, shed glory and lustre upon their holy calling.
 Champlain's sympathies were always with his missionaries in their pious
 labors. Whether the enterprise were the establishment of a mission among
 the distant Hurons, among the Algonquins on the upper St. Lawrence, or for
 the enlargement of their accommodations at Quebec, the printing of a
 catechism in the language of the aborigines, or if the foundations of a
 college were to be laid for the education of the savages, his heart and
 hand were ready for the work.
 On the establishment of the Company of New France, or the Hundred
 Associates, Protestants were entirely excluded. By its constitution no
 Huguenots were allowed to settle within the domain of the company. If this
 rule was not suggested by Champlain, it undoubtedly existed by his decided
 and hearty concurrence. The mingling of Catholics and Huguenots in the
 early history of the colony had brought with it numberless annoyances. By
 sifting the wheat before it was sown, it was hoped to get rid of an
 otherwise inevitable cause of irritation and trouble. The correctness of
 the principle of Christian toleration was not admitted by the Roman church
 then any more than it is now. Nor did the Protestants of that period
 believe in it, or practise it, whenever they possessed the power to do
 otherwise. Even the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay held that their charter
 conferred upon them the right and power of exclusion. It was not easy, it
 is true, to carry out this view by square legal enactment without coming
 into conflict with the laws of England; but they were adroit and skilful,
 endowed with a marvellous talent for finding some indirect method of laying
 a heavy hand upon Friend or Churchman, or the more independent thinkers
 among their own numbers, who desired to make their abode within the
 precincts of the bay. In the earlier years of the colony at Quebec, when
 Protestant and Catholic were there on equal terms, Champlain's religious
 associations led him to swerve neither to the right hand nor to the left.
 His administration was characterized by justice, firmness, and gentleness,
 and was deservedly satisfactory to all parties.
 In his later years, the little colony upon whose welfare and Christian
 culture he had bestowed so much cheerful labor and anxious thought, became
 every day more and more dear to his heart. Within the ample folds of his
 charity were likewise encircled the numerous tribes of savages, spread over
 the vast domains of New France. He earnestly desired that all of them, far
 and near, friend and foe, might be instructed in the doctrines of the
 Christian faith, and brought into willing and loving obedience to the
 In its personal application to his own heart, the religion of Champlain was
 distinguished by a natural and gradual progress. His warmth, tenderness,
 and zeal grew deeper and stronger with advancing years. In his religious
 life there was a clearly marked seed-time, growth, and ripening for the
 harvest. After his return to Quebec, during the last three years of his
 life, his time was especially systematized and appropriated for
 intellectual and spiritual improvement. Some portion was given every
 morning by himself and those who constituted his family to a course of
 historical reading, and in the evening to the memoirs of the saintly dead
 whose lives he regarded as suitable for the imitation of the living, and
 each night for himself he devoted more or less time to private meditation
 and prayer.
 Such were the devout habits of Champlain's life in his later years. We are
 not, therefore, surprised that the historian of Canada, twenty-five years
 after his death, should place upon record the following concise but
 comprehensive eulogy:--
 "His surpassing love of justice, piety, fidelity to God, his king, and the
 Society of New France, had always been conspicuous. But in his death he
 gave such illustrious proofs of his goodness as to fill every one with
 admiration." [117]
 The reader of these memoirs has doubtless observed with surprise and
 perhaps with disappointment, the readiness with which Champlain took part
 in the wars of the savages. On his first visit to the valley of the St
 Lawrence, he found the Indians dwelling on the northern shores of the river
 and the lakes engaged in a deadly warfare with those on the southern, the
 Iroquois tribes occupying the northern limits of the present State of New
 York, generally known as the Five Nations. The hostile relations between
 these savages were not of recent date. They reached back to a very early
 but indefinite period. They may have existed for several centuries. When
 Champlain planted his colony at Quebec, in 1608, he at once entered into
 friendly relations with all the tribes which were his immediate neighbors.
 This was eminently a suitable thing to do, and was, moreover, necessary for
 his safety and protection.
 But a permanent and effective alliance with these tribes carried with it of
 necessity a solemn assurance of aid against their enemies. This Champlain
 promptly promised without hesitation, and the next year he fulfilled his
 promise by leading them to battle on the shores of Lake Champlain. At all
 subsequent periods he regarded himself as committed to aid his allies in
 their hostile expeditions against the Iroquois. In his printed journal, he
 offers no apology for his conduct in this respect, nor does he intimate
 that his views could be questioned either in morals or sound policy. He
 rarely assigns any reason whatever for engaging in these wars. In one or
 two instances he states that it seemed to him necessary to do so in order
 to facilitate the discoveries which he wished to make, and that he hoped it
 might in the end be the means of leading the savages to embrace
 Christianity. But he nowhere enters upon a full discussion of this point.
 It is enough to say, in explanation of this silence, that a private journal
 like that published by Champlain, was not the place in which to foreshadow
 a policy, especially as it might in the future be subject to change, and
 its success might depend upon its being known only to those who had the
 power to shape and direct it. But nevertheless the silence of Champlain has
 doubtless led some historians to infer that he had no good reasons to give,
 and unfavorable criticisms have been bestowed upon his conduct by those,
 who did not understand the circumstances which influenced him, or the
 motives which controlled his action.
 The war-policy of Champlain was undoubtedly very plainly set forth in his
 correspondence and interviews with the viceroys and several companies under
 whose authority he acted. But these discussions, whether oral or written,
 do not appear in general to have been preserved. Fortunately a single
 document of this character is still extant, in which his views are clearly
 unfolded. In Champlain's remarkable letter to Cardinal de Richelieu, which
 we have introduced a few pages back, his policy is fully stated. It is
 undoubtedly the same that he had acted upon from the beginning, and
 explains the frankness and readiness with which, first and last, as a
 faithful ally, he had professed himself willing to aid the friendly tribes
 in their wars against the Iroquois. The object which he wished to
 accomplish by this tribal war was, as fully stated in the letter to which
 we have referred, first, to conquer the Iroquois or Five Nations; to
 introduce peaceful relations between them and the other surrounding tribes;
 and, secondly, to establish a grand alliance of all the savage tribes, far
 and near, with the French. This could only be done in the order here
 stated. No peace could be secured from the Iroquois, except by their
 conquest, the utter breaking down of their power. They were not susceptible
 to the influence of reason. They were implacable, and had been brutalized
 by long-inherited habits of cruelty. In the total annihilation of their
 power was the only hope of peace. This being accomplished, the surviving
 remnant would, according to the usual custom among the Indians, readily
 amalgamate with the victorious tribes, and then a general alliance with the
 French could be easily secured. This was what Champlain wished to
 accomplish. The pacification of all the tribes occupying both sides of the
 St. Lawrence and the chain of northern lakes would place the whole domain
 of the American continent, or as much of it as it would be desirable to
 hold, under the easy and absolute control of the French nation.
 Such a pacification as this would secure two objects; objects eminently
 important, appealing strongly to all who desired the aggrandizement of
 France and the progress and supremacy of the Catholic faith. It would
 secure for ever to the French the fur-trade of the Indians, a commerce then
 important and capable of vast expansion. The chief strength and resources
 of the savages allied with the French, the Montagnais, Algonquins, and
 Hurons, were at that period expended in their wars. On the cessation of
 hostilities, their whole force would naturally and inevitably be given to
 the chase. A grand field lay open to them for this exciting occupation. The
 fur-bearing country embraced not only the region of the St. Lawrence and
 the lakes, but the vast and unlimited expanse of territory stretching out
 indefinitely in every direction. The whole northern half of the continent
 of North America, filled with the most valuable fur-producing mammalia,
 would be open to the enterprise of the French, and could not fail to pour
 into their treasury an incredible amount of wealth. This Champlain was
 far-sighted enough to see, and his patriotic zeal lead him to desire that
 France should avail herself of this opportunity. [118]
 But the conquest of the Iroquois would not only open to France the prospect
 of exhaustless wealth, but it would render accessible a broad, extensive,
 and inviting field of missionary labor. It would remove all external and
 physical obstacles to the speedy transmission and offer of the Christian
 faith to the numberless tribes that would thus be brought within their
 The desire to bring about these two great ulterior purposes, the
 augmentation of the commerce of France in the full development of the
 fur-trade, and the gathering into the Catholic church the savage tribes of
 the wilderness, explains the readiness with which, from the beginning,
 Champlain encouraged his Indian allies and took part with them in their
 wars against the Five Nations. In the very last year of his life, he
 demanded of Richelieu the requisite military force to carry on this war,
 reminding him that the cost would be trifling to his Majesty, while the
 enterprise would be the most noble that could be imagined.
 In regard to the domestic and social life of Champlain, scarcely any
 documents remain that can throw light upon the subject. Of his parents we
 have little information beyond that of their respectable calling and
 standing. He was probably an only child, as no others are on any occasion
 mentioned or referred to. He married, as we have seen, the daughter of the
 Secretary of the King's Chamber, and his wife, Hélène Boullé, accompanied
 him to Canada in 1620, where she remained four years. They do not appear to
 have had children, as the names of none are found in the records at Quebec,
 and, at his death, the only claimant as an heir, was a cousin, Marie
 Cameret, who, in 1639, resided at Rochelle, and whose husband was Jacques
 Hersant, controller of duties and imposts. After Champlain's decease, his
 wife, Hélène Boullé, became a novice in an Ursuline convent in the faubourg
 of St. Jacques in Paris. Subsequently, in 1648, she founded a religious
 house of the same order in the city of Meaux, contributing for the purpose
 the sum of twenty thousand livres and some part of the furnishing. She
 entered the house that she had founded, as a nun, under the name of Sister
 _Hélène de St. Augustin_, where, as the foundress, certain privileges were
 granted to her, such as a superior quality of food for herself, exemption
 from attendance upon some of the longer services, the reception into the
 convent, on her recommendation, of a young maiden to be a nun of the choir,
 with such pecuniary assistance as she might need, and the letters of her
 brother, the Father Eustache Boullé, were to be exempted from the usual
 inspection. She died at Meaux, on the 20th day of December, 1654, in the
 convent which she had founded. [119]
 As an explorer, Champlain was unsurpassed by any who visited the northern
 coasts of America anterior to its permanent settlement He was by nature
 endowed with a love of useful adventure, and for the discovery of new
 countries he had an insatiable thirst. It began with him as a child, and
 was fresh and irrepressible in his latest years. Among the arts, he
 assigned to navigation the highest importance. His broad appreciation of it
 and his strong attachment to it, are finely stated in his own compact and
 comprehensive description.
 "Of all the most useful and excellent arts, that of navigation has always
 seemed to me to occupy the first place. For the more hazardous it is, and
 the more numerous the perils and losses by which it is attended, so much
 the more is it esteemed and exalted above all others, being wholly unsuited
 to the timid and irresolute. By this art we obtain a knowledge of different
 countries, regions, and realms. By it we attract and bring to our own land
 all kinds of riches; by it the idolatry of paganism is overthrown and
 Christianity proclaimed throughout all the regions of the earth. This is
 the art which won my love in my early years, and induced me to expose
 myself almost all my life to the impetuous waves of the ocean, and led me
 to explore the coasts of a part of America, especially those of New France,
 where I have always desired to see the Lily flourish, together with the
 only religion, catholic, apostolic, and Roman."
 In addition to his natural love for discovery, Champlain had a combination
 of other qualities which rendered his explorations pre-eminently valuable.
 His interest did not vanish with seeing what was new. It was by no means a
 mere fancy for simple sight-seeing. Restlessness and volatility did not
 belong to his temperament. His investigations were never made as an end,
 but always as a means. His undertakings in this direction were for the most
 part shaped and colored by his Christian principle and his patriotic love
 of France. Sometimes one and sometimes the other was more prominent.
 His voyage to the West Indies was undertaken under a twofold impulse. It
 gratified his love of exploration and brought back rare and valuable
 information to France. Spain at that time did not open her island-ports to
 the commerce of the world. She was drawing from them vast revenues in
 pearls and the precious metals. It was her policy to keep this whole
 domain, this rich archipelago, hermetically sealed, and any foreign vessel
 approached at the risk of capture and confiscation. Champlain could not,
 therefore, explore this region under a commission from France. He
 accordingly sought and obtained permission to visit these Spanish
 possessions under the authority of Spain herself. He entered and personally
 examined all the important ports that surround and encircle the Caribbean
 Sea, from the pearl-bearing Margarita on the south, Deseada on the east, to
 Cuba on the west, together with the city of Mexico, and the Isthmus of
 Panama on the mainland. As the fruit of these journeyings, he brought back
 a report minute in description, rich in details, and luminous with
 illustrations. This little brochure, from the circumstances attendant upon
 its origin, is unsurpassed in historical importance by any similar or
 competing document of that period. It must always remain of the highest
 value as a trustworthy, original authority, without which it is probable
 that the history of those islands, for that period, could not be accurately
 and truthfully written.
 Champlain was a pioneer in the exploration of the Atlantic coast of New
 England and the eastern provinces of Canada, From the Strait of Canseau, at
 the northeastern extremity of Nova Scotia, to the Vineyard Sound, on the
 southern limits of Massachusetts, he made a thorough survey of the coast in
 1605 and 1606, personally examining its most important harbors, bays, and
 rivers, mounting its headlands, penetrating its forests, carefully
 observing and elaborately describing its soil, its products, and its native
 inhabitants. Besides lucid and definite descriptions of the coast, he
 executed topographical drawings of numerous points of interest along our
 shores, as Plymouth harbor, Nauset Bay, Stage Harbor at Chatham, Gloucester
 Bay, the Bay of Baco, with the long stretch of Old Orchard Beach and its
 interspersed islands, the mouth of the Kennebec, and as many more on the
 coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. To these he added descriptions,
 more or less definite, of the harbors of Barnstable, Wellfleet, Boston, of
 the headland of Cape Anne, Merrimac Bay, the Isles of Shoals, Cape
 Porpoise, Richmond's Island, Mount Desert, Isle Haute, Seguin, and the
 numberless other islands that adorn the exquisite sea-coast of Maine, as
 jewels that add a new lustre to the beauty of a peerless goddess.
 Other navigators had coasted along our shores. Some of them had touched at
 single points, of which they made meagre and unsatisfactory surveys.
 Gosnold had, in 1602, discovered Savage Rock, but it was so indefinitely
 located and described that it cannot even at this day be identified.
 Resolving to make a settlement on one of the barren islands forming the
 group named in honor of Queen Elizabeth and still bearing her name; after
 some weeks spent in erecting a storehouse, and in collecting a cargo of
 "furrs, skyns, saxafras, and other commodities," the project of a
 settlement was abandoned and he returned to England, leaving, however, two
 permanent memorials of his voyage, in the names which he gave respectively
 to Martha's Vineyard and to the headland of Cape Cod.
 Captain Martin Pring came to our shores in 1603, in search of a cargo of
 sassafras. There are indications that he entered the Penobscot. He
 afterward paid his respects to Savage Rock, the undefined _bonanza_ of his
 predecessor. He soon found his desired cargo on the Vineyard Islands, and
 hastily returned to England.
 Captain George Weymouth, in 1605, was on the coast of Maine concurrently,
 or nearly so, with Champlain, where he passed a month, explored a river,
 set up a cross, and took possession of the country in the name of the king.
 But where these transactions took place is still in dispute, so
 indefinitely does his journalist describe them.
 Captain John Smith, eight years later than Champlain, surveyed the coast of
 New England while his men were collecting a cargo of furs and fish. He
 wrote a description of it from memory, part or all of it while a prisoner
 on board a French ship of war off Fayall, and executed a map, both
 valuable, but nevertheless exceedingly indefinite and general in their
 These flying visits to our shores were not unimportant, and must not be
 undervalued. They were necessary steps in the progress of the grand
 historical events that followed. But they were meagre and hasty and
 superficial, when compared to the careful, deliberate, extensive, and
 thorough, not to say exhaustive, explorations made by Champlain.
 In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Cartier had preceded Champlain by a period of
 more than sixty years. During this long, dreary half-century the stillness
 of the primeval forest had not been disturbed by the woodman's axe. When
 Champlain's eyes fell upon it, it was still the same wild, unfrequented,
 unredeemed region that it had been to its first discoverer. The rivers,
 bays, and islands described by Cartier were identified by Champlain, and
 the names they had already received were permanently fixed by his added
 authority. The whole gulf and river were re-examined and described anew in
 his journal. The exploration of the Richelieu and of Lake Champlain was
 pushed into the interior three hundred miles from his base at Quebec. It
 reached into a wilderness and along gentle waters never before seen by any
 civilized race. It was at once fascinating and hazardous, environed as it
 was by vigilant and ferocious savages, who guarded its gates with the
 sleepless watchfulness of the fabled Cerberus.
 The courage, endurance, and heroism of Champlain were tested in the still
 greater-exploration of 1615. It extended from Montreal, the whole length of
 the Ottawa, to Lake Nipissing, the Georgian Bay, Simcoe, the system of
 small lakes on the south, across the Ontario, and finally ending in the
 interior of the State of New York, a journey through tangled forests and
 broken water-courses of more than a thousand miles, occupying nearly a
 year, executed in the face of physical suffering and hardship before which
 a nature less intrepid and determined, less loyal to his great purpose,
 less generous and unselfish, would have yielded at the outset. These
 journeys into the interior, along the courses of navigable rivers and
 lakes, and through the primitive forests, laid open to the knowledge of the
 French a domain vast and indefinite in extent, on which an empire broader
 and far richer in resources than the old Gallic France might have been
 successfully reared.
 The personal explorations of Champlain in the West Indies, on the Atlantic
 coast, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the State of New York and of
 Vermont, and among the lakes in Canada and those that divide the Dominion
 from the United States, including the full, explicit, and detailed journals
 which he wrote concerning them, place Champlain undeniably not merely in
 the front rank, but at the head of the long list of explorers and
 navigators, who early visited this part of the continent of North America.
 Champlain's literary labors are interesting and important. They were not
 professional, but incidental, and the natural outgrowth of the career to
 which he devoted his life He had the sagacity to see that the fields which
 he entered as an explorer were new and important, that the aspect of every
 thing which he then saw would, under the influence and progress of
 civilization, soon be changed, and that it was historically important that
 a portrait Sketched by an eyewitness should be handed down to other
 generations. It was likewise necessary for the immediate and successful
 planting of colonies, that those who engaged in the undertaking should have
 before them full information of all the conditions on which they were to
 build their hopes of final success.
 Inspired by such motives as these, Champlain wrote out an accurate journal
 of the events that transpired about him, of what he personally saw, and of
 the observations of others, authenticated by the best tests which, under
 the circumstances, he was able to apply. His natural endowments for this
 work were of the highest order. As an observer he was sagacious,
 discriminating, and careful. His judgment was cool, comprehensive, and
 judicious. His style is in general clear, logical, and compact. His
 acquired ability was not, however, extraordinary. He was a scholar neither
 by education nor by profession. His life was too full of active duties, or
 too remote from the centres of knowledge for acquisitions in the
 departments of elegant and refined learning. The period in which he lived
 was little distinguished for literary culture. A more brilliant day was
 approaching, but it had not yet appeared. The French language was still
 crude and unpolished. It had not been disciplined and moulded into the
 excellence to which it soon after arose in the reign of Louis XIV. We
 cannot in reason look for a grace, refinement, and flexibility which the
 French language had not at that time generally attained. But it is easy to
 see under the rude, antique, and now obsolete forms which characterize
 Champlain's narratives, the elements of a style which, under, early
 discipline, nicer culture, and a richer vocabulary, might have made it a
 model for all times. There are, here and there, some involved, unfinished,
 and obscure passages, which seem, indeed, to be the offspring of haste, or
 perhaps of careless and inadequate proof-reading. But in general his style
 is without ornament, simple, dignified, concise, and clear. While he was
 not a diffusive writer, his works are by no means limited in extent, as
 they occupy in the late erudite Laverdière's edition, six quarto volumes,
 containing fourteen hundred pages. In them are three large maps,
 delineating the whole northeastern part of the continent, executed with
 great care and labor by his own hand, together with numerous local
 drawings, picturing not only bays and harbors, Indian canoes, wigwams, and
 fortresses, but several battle scenes, conveying a clear idea, not possible
 by a mere verbal description, of the savage implements and mode of warfare.
 [120] His works include, likewise, a treatise on navigation, full of
 excellent suggestions to the practical seaman of that day, drawn from his
 own experience, stretching over a period of more than forty years.
 The Voyages of Champlain, as an authority, must always stand in the front
 rank. In trustworthiness, in richness and fullness of detail, they have no
 competitor in the field of which they treat. His observations upon the
 character, manners, customs, habits, and utensils of the aborigines, were
 made before they were modified or influenced in their mode of life by
 European civilization. The intercourse of the strolling fur-trader and
 fishermen with them was so infrequent and brief at that early period, that
 it made upon them little or no impression. Champlain consequently pictures
 the Indian in his original, primeval simplicity. This will always give to
 his narratives, in the eye of the historian, the ethnologist, and the
 antiquary, a peculiar and pre-eminent importance. The result of personal
 observation, eminently truthful and accurate, their testimony must in all
 future time be incomparably the best that can be obtained relating to the
 aborigines on this part of the American continent.
 In completing this memoir, the reader can hardly fail to be impressed, not
 to say disappointed, by the fact that results apparently insignificant
 should thus far have followed a life of able, honest, unselfish, heroic
 labor. The colony was still small in numbers, the acres subdued and brought
 into cultivation were few, and the aggregate yearly products were meagre.
 But it is to be observed that the productiveness of capital and labor and
 talent, two hundred and seventy years ago, cannot well be compared with the
 standards of to-day. Moreover, the results of Champlain's career are
 insignificant rather in appearance than in reality. The work which he did
 was in laying foundations, while the superstructure was to be reared in
 other years and by other hands. The palace or temple, by its lofty and
 majestic proportions, attracts the eye and gratifies the taste; but its
 unseen foundations, with their nicely adjusted arches, without which the
 superstructure would crumble to atoms, are not less the result of the
 profound knowledge and practical wisdom of the architect. The explorations
 made by Champlain early and late, the organization and planting of his
 colonies, the resistance of avaricious corporations, the holding of
 numerous savage tribes in friendly alliance, the daily administration of
 the affairs of the colony, of the savages, and of the corporation in
 France, to the eminent satisfaction of all generous and noble-minded
 patrons, and this for a period of more than thirty years, are proofs of an
 extraordinary combination of mental and moral qualities. Without
 impulsiveness, his warm and tender sympathies imparted to him an unusual
 power and influence over other men. He was wise, modest, and judicious in
 council, prompt, vigorous, and practical in administration, simple and
 frugal in his mode of life, persistent and unyielding in the execution of
 his plans, brave and valiant in danger, unselfish, honest, and
 conscientious in the discharge of duty. These qualities, rare in
 combination, were always conspicuous in Champlain, and justly entitle him
 to the respect and admiration of mankind.
 117. _Vide Creuxius, Historia Canadensis_, pp 183, 184.
 118. The justness of Champlain's conception of the value of the fur-trade
      has been verified by its subsequent history. The Hudson's Bay Company
      was organized for the purpose of carrying on this trade, under a
      charter granted by Charles II., in 1670. A part of the trade has at
      times been conducted by other associations But this company is still
      in active and rigorous operation. Its capital is $10,000,000. At its
      reorganization in 1863, it was estimated that it would yield a net
      annual income, to be divided among the corporators, of $400,000. It
      employs twelve hundred servants beside its chief factors. It is easy
      to see what a vast amount of wealth in the shape of furs and peltry
      has been pouring into the European markets, for more than two hundred
      years, from this fur bearing region, and the sources of this wealth
      are probably little, if in any degree, diminished.
 119. _Vide Documents inédits sur Samuel de Champlain_, par Étienne
      Charavay, archiviste-paléographe, Paris, 1875.
 120. The later sketches made by Champlain are greatly superior to those
      which he executed to illustrate his voyage in the West Indies. They
      are not only accurate, but some of them are skilfully done, and not
      only do no discredit to an amateur, but discover marks of artistic
      taste and skill.
 EUSTACHE BOULLÉ. A brother-in-law of Champlain, who made his first visit to
 Canada in 1618. He was an active assistant of Champlain, and in 1625 was
 named his lieutenant. He continued there until the taking of Quebec by the
 English in 1629. He subsequently took holy orders.--_Vide Doc. inédits sur
 Samuel de Champlain_, par Étienne Charavay. Paris, 1875, p. 8.
 PONT GRAVÉ. The whole career of this distinguished merchant was closely
 associated with Canadian trade. He was in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the
 interest of Chauvin, in 1599. He commanded the expedition sent out by De
 Chaste in 1603, when Champlain made his first exploration of the River St.
 Lawrence. He was intrusted with the chief management of the trade carried
 on with the Indians by the various companies and viceroys under Champlain's
 lieutenancy until the removal of the colony by the English, when his active
 life was closed by the infirmities of age. He was always a warm and trusted
 friend of Champlain, who sought his counsel on all occasions of importance.
 THE BIRTH OF CHAMPLAIN. All efforts to fix the exact date of his birth have
 been unsuccessful. M. De Richemond, author of a _Biographie de la Charente
 Inférieure_, instituted most careful searches, particularly with the hope
 of finding a record of his baptism. The records of the parish of Brouage
 extend back only to August 11, 1615. The duplicates, deposited at the
 office of the civil tribunal of Marennes anterior to this date, were
 destroyed by fire.--_MS. letter of M. De Richemond, Archivist of the Dep.
 of Charente Inférieure_, La Rochelle, July 17, 1875.
 MARC LESCARBOT. We have cited the authority of this writer in this work on
 many occasions. He was born at Vervins, perhaps about 1585. He became an
 advocate, and a resident of Paris, and, according to Larousse, died in
 1630. He came to America in 1606, and passed the winter of that year at the
 French settlement near the present site of Lower Granville, on the western
 bank of Annapolis Basin in Nova Scotia. In the spring of 1607 he crossed
 the Bay of Fundy, entered the harbor of St. John, N. B., and extended his
 voyage as far as De Monts's Island in the River St. Croix. He returned to
 France that same year, on the breaking up of De Monts's colony. He was the
 author of the following works: _Histoire de la Nouvelle France_, 1609; _Les
 Muses de la Nouvelle France; Tableau de la Suisse, auquel sont décrites les
 Singularites des Alpes_, Paris, 1618; _La Chasse aux Anglais dans l'isle de
 Rhé et au Siége de la Rochelle, et la Réduction de cette Ville en 1628_,
 Paris, 1629.
 PLYMOUTH HARBOR. This note will modify our remarks on p. 78, Vol. II.
 Champlain entered this harbor on the 18th of July, 1605, and, lingering but
 a single day, sailed out of it on the 19th. He named it _Port St. Louis_,
 or _Port du Cap St. Louis_.--_Vide antea_, pp. 53, 54; Vol. II., pp. 76-78.
 As the fruit of his brief stay in the harbor of Plymouth, he made an
 outline sketch of the bay which preserves most of its important features.
 He delineates what is now called on our Coast Survey maps _Long Beach_ and
 _Duxbury Beach_. At the southern extremity of the latter is the headland
 known as the _Gurnet_. Within the bay he figures two islands, of which he
 speaks also in the text. These two islands are mentioned in Mourt's
 Relation, printed in 1622.--_Vide Dexter's ed._ p. 60. They are also
 figured on an old map of the date of 1616, found by J. R. Brodhead in the
 Royal Archives at the Hague; likewise on a map by Lucini, without date,
 but, as it has Boston on it, it must have been executed after 1630. These
 maps may be found in _Doc. His. of the State of New York_, Vol. I.;
 _Documents relating to the Colonial His. of the State of New York_, Vol.
 I., p. 13. The reader will find these islands likewise indicated on the map
 of William Wood, entitled _The South part of New-England, as it is Planted
 this yeare, 1634_.--_Vide New England Prospect_, Prince Society ed. They
 appear also on Blaskowitz's "Plan of Plimouth," 1774.--_Vide Changes in the
 Harbor of Plymouth_, by Prof. Henry Mitchell, Chief of Physical
 Hydrography, U. S. Coast Survey, Report of 1876, Appendix No. 9. In the
 collections of the Mass. Historical Society for 1793, Vol. II., in an
 article entitled _A Topographical Description of Duxborough_, but without
 the author's name, the writer speaks of two pleasant islands within the
 harbor, and adds that Saquish was joined to the Gurnet by a narrow piece of
 land, but for several years the water had made its way across and
 _insulated_ it.
 From the early maps to which we have referred, and the foregoing citations,
 it appears that there were two islands in the harbor of Plymouth from the
 time of Champlain till about the beginning of the present century. A
 careful collation of Champlain's map of the harbor with the recent Coast
 Survey Charts will render it evident that one of these islands thus figured
 by Champlain, and by others later, is Saquish Head; that since his time a
 sand-bank has been thrown up and now become permanent, connecting it with
 the Gurnet by what is now called Saquish Neck. Prof. Mitchell, in the work
 already cited, reports that there are now four fathoms less of water in the
 deeper portion of the roadstead than when Champlain explored the harbor in
 1605. There must, therefore, have been an enormous deposit of sand to
 produce this result, and this accounts for the neck of sand which has been
 thrown up and become fixed or permanent, now connecting Saquish Head with
 the Gurnet.
 MOUNT DESERT. This island was discovered on the fifth day of September,
 1604. Champlain having been comissioned by Sieur De Monts, the Patentee of
 La Cadie, to make discoveries on the coast southwest of the Saint Croix,
 left the mouth of that river in a small barque of seventeen or eighteen
 tons, with twelve sailors and two savages as guides, and anchored the same
 evening, apparently near Bar Harbor. While here, they explored Frenchman's
 Bay as far on the north as the Narrows, where Champlain says the distance
 across to the mainland is not more than a hundred paces. The next day, on
 the sixth of the month, they sailed two leagues, and came to Otter Creek
 Cove, which extends up into the island a mile or more, nestling between the
 spurs of Newport Mountain on the east and Green Mountain on the west.
 Champlain says this cove is "at the foot of the mountains," which clearly
 identifies it, as it is the only one in the neighborhood answering to this
 description. In this cove they discovered several savages, who had come
 there to hunt beavers and to fish. On a visit to Otter Cove Cliffs in June,
 1880, we were told by an old fisherman ninety years of age, living on the
 borders of this cove, and the statement was confirmed by several others,
 that on the creek at the head of the cove, there was, within his memory, a
 well-known beaver dam.
 The Indians whose acquaintance Champlain made at this place conducted him
 among the islands, to the mouth of the Penobscot, and finally up the river,
 to the site of the present city of Bangor. It was on this visit, on the
 fifth of September, 1604, that Champlain gave the island the name of
 _Monts-déserts_. The French generally gave to places names that were
 significant. In this instance they did not depart from their usual custom.
 The summits of most of the mountains on this island, then as now, were only
 rocks, being destitute of trees, and this led Champlain to give its
 significant name, which, in plain English, means the island of the desert,
 waste, or uncultivatable mountains. If we follow the analogy of the
 language, either French or English, it should be pronounced with the accent
 on the penult, Mount Désert, and not on the last syllable, as we sometimes
 hear it. This principle cannot be violated without giving to the word a
 meaning which, in this connection, would be obviously inappropriate and
 CARTE DE LA NOUVELLE FRANCE, 1632. As the map of 1632 has often been
 referred to in this work, we have introduced into this volume a heliotype
 copy. The original was published in the year of its date, but it had been
 completed before Champlain left Quebec in 1629. The reader will bear in
 mind that it was made from Champlain's personal explorations, and from such
 other information as could be obtained from the meagre sources which
 existed at that early period, and not from any accurate or scientific
 surveys. The information which he obtained from others was derived from
 more or less doubtful sources, coming as it did from fishermen,
 fur-traders, and the native inhabitants. The two former undoubtedly
 constructed, from time to time, rude maps of the coast for their own use.
 From these Champlain probably obtained valuable hints, and he was thus able
 to supplement his own knowledge of the regions with which he was least
 familiar on the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Beyond the
 limits of his personal explorations on the west, his information was wholly
 derived from the savages. No European had penetrated into those regions, if
 we except his servant, Étienne Brûlé, whose descriptions could have been of
 very little service. The deficiencies of Champlain's map are here
 accordingly most apparent. Rivers and lakes farther west than the Georgian
 Bay, and south of it, are sometimes laid down where none exist, and, again,
 where they do exist, none are portrayed. The outline of Lake Huron, for
 illustration, was entirely misconceived. A river-like line only of water
 represents Lake Erie, while Lake Michigan does not appear at all.
 The delineation of Hudson's Bay was evidently taken from the TABULA NAUTICA
 of Henry Hudson, as we have shown in Note 297, Vol. II., to which the
 reader is referred.
 It will be observed that there is no recognition on the map of any English
 settlement within the limits of New England. In 1629, when the _Carte de la
 Nouvelle France_ was completed, an English colony had been planted at
 Plymouth, Mass., nine years, and another at Piscataqua, or Portsmouth, N.
 H., six years. The Rev. William Blaxton had been for several years in
 occupation of the peninsula of Shawmut, or Boston. Salem had also been
 settled one or two years. These last two may not, it is true, have come to
 Champlain's knowledge. But none of these settlements are laid down on the
 map. The reason of these omissions is obvious. The whole territory from at
 least the 40th degree of north latitude, stretching indefinitely to the
 north, was claimed by the French. As possession was, at that day, the most
 potent argument for the justice of a territorial claim, the recognition, on
 a French map, of these English settlements, would have been an indiscretion
 which the wise and prudent Champlain would not be likely to commit.
 There is, however, a distinct recognition of an English settlement farther
 south. Cape Charles and Cape Henry appear at the entrance of Chesapeake
 Bay. Virginia is inscribed in its proper place, while Jamestown and Point
 Comfort are referred to by numbers.
 On the borders of the map numerous fish belonging to these waters are
 figured, together with several vessels of different sizes and in different
 attitudes, thus preserving their form and structure at that period. The
 degrees of latitude and longitude are numerically indicated, which are
 convenient for the references found in Champlain's journals, but are
 necessarily too inaccurate to be otherwise useful. But notwithstanding its
 defects, when we take into account the limited means at his command, the
 difficulties which he had to encounter, the vast region which it covers,
 this map must be regarded as an extraordinary achievement. It is by far the
 most accurate in outline, and the most finished in detail, of any that had
 been attempted of this region anterior to this date.
 THE PORTRAITS OF CHAMPLAIN.--Three engraved portraits of Champlain have
 come to our knowledge. All of them appear to have been after an original
 engraved portrait by Balthazar Moncornet. This artist was born in Rouen
 about 1615, and died not earlier than 1670. He practised his art in Paris,
 where he kept a shop for the sale of prints. Though not eminently
 distinguished as a skilful artist, he nevertheless left many works,
 particularly a great number of portraits. As he had not arrived at the age
 of manhood when Champlain died, his engraving of him was probably executed
 about fifteen or twenty years after that event. At that time Madame
 Champlain, his widow, was still living, as likewise many of Champlaln's
 intimate friends. From some of them it is probable Moncornet obtained a
 sketch or portrait, from which his engraving was made.
 Of the portraits of Champlain which we have seen, we may mention first that
 in Laverdière's edition of his works. This is a half-length, with long,
 curling hair, moustache and imperial. The sleeves of the close-fitting coat
 are slashed, and around the neck is the broad linen collar of the period,
 fastened in front with cord and tassels. On the left, in the background, is
 the promontory of Quebec, with the representation of several turreted
 buildings both in the upper and lower town. On the border of the oval,
 which incloses the subject, is the legend, _Moncornet Ex c. p._ The
 engraving is coarsely executed, apparently on copper. It is alleged to have
 been taken from an original Moncornet in France. Our inquiries as to where
 the original then was, or in whose possession it then was or is now, have
 been unsuccessful. No original, when inquiries were made by Dr. Otis, a
 short time since, was found to exist in the department of prints in the
 Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.
 Another portrait of Champlain is found in Shea's translation of
 Charlevoix's History of New France. This was taken from the portrait of
 Champlain, which, with that of Cartier, Montcalm, Wolfe, and others, adorns
 the walls of the reception room of the Speaker of the House of Commons, in
 the Parliament House at Ottawa, in Canada, which was painted by Thomas
 Hamel, from a copy of Moncornet's engraving obtained in France by the late
 M. Faribault. From the costume and general features, it appears to be after
 the same as that contained in Laverdière's edition of Champlain's works, to
 which we have already referred. The artist has given it a youthful
 appearance, which suggests that the original sketch was made many years
 before Champlain's death. We are indebted to the politeness of Dr. Shea for
 the copies which accompany this work.
 A third portrait of Champlain may be found in L'Histoire de France, par M.
 Guizot, Paris, 1876, Vol. v. p. 149. The inscription reads: "CHAMPLAIN
 [SAMUEL DE], d'après un portrait gravé par Moncornet." It is engraved on
 wood by E. Ronjat, and represents the subject in the advanced years of his
 life. In position, costume, and accessories it is widely different from the
 others, and Moncornet must have left more than one engraving of Champlain,
 or we must conclude that the modern artists have taken extraordinary
 liberties with their subject. The features are strong, spirited, and
 characteristic. A heliotype copy accompanies this volume.
 The journals of Champlain, commonly called his Voyages, were written and
 published by him at intervals from 1603 to 1632. The first volume was
 printed in 1603, and entitled,--
 1. _Des Sauuages, ou, Voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouage, faict en la
 France Nouuelle, l'an mil six cens trois. A Paris, chez Claude de
 Monstr'oeil, tenant sa boutique en la Cour du Palais, au nom de Jesus.
 1604. Auec privilege du Roy_. 12mo. 4 preliminary leaves. Text 36 leaves.
 The title-page contains also a sub-title, enumerating in detail the
 subjects treated of in the work. Another copy with slight verbal changes
 has no date on the title-page, but in both the "privilège" is dated
 November 15, 1603. The copies which we have used are in the Library of
 Harvard College, and in that of Mrs. John Carter Brown, of Providence, R.
 An English translation of this issue is contained in _Purchas his
 Pilgrimes_. London, 1625, vol. iv., pp. 1605-1619.
 The next publication appeared in 1613, with the following title:--
 2. _Les Voyages du Sieur de Champlain Xaintongeois, Capitaine ordinaire
 pour le Roy, en la marine. Divisez en deux livres. ou, journal tres-fidele
 des observations faites és descouuertures de la Nouuelle France: tant en la
 description des terres, costes, riuieres, ports, haures, leurs hauteurs, &
 plusieurs delinaisons de la guide-aymant; qu'en la creance des peuples,
 leur superslition, façon de viure & de guerroyer: enrichi de quantité de
 figures, A Paris, chez Jean Berjon, rue S. Jean de Beauuais, au Cheual
 volant, & en sa boutique au Palais, à la gallerie des prisonniers.
 M.DC.XIII. Avec privilege dv Roy_. 4to. 10 preliminary leaves. Text, 325
 pages; table 5 pp. One large folding map. One small map. 22 plates. The
 title-page contains, in addition, a sub-title in regard to the two maps.
 The above-mentioned volume contains, also, the Fourth Voyage, bound in at
 the end, with the following title:--
 _Qvatriesme Voyage du Sr de Champlain Capitaine ordinaire povr le Roy en la
 marine, & Lieutenant de Monseigneur le Prince de Condé en la Nouuelle
 France, fait en l'année_ 1613. 52 pages. Whether this was also issued as a
 separate work, we are not informed.
 The copy of this publication of 1613 which we have used is in the Library
 of Harvard College.
 The next publication of Champlain was in 1619. There was a re-issue of the
 same in 1620 and likewise in 1627. The title of the last-mentioned issue is
 as follows:--
 3. _Voyages et Descovvertures faites en la Novvelle France, depuis l'année
 1615. iusques à la fin de l'année 1618. Par le Sieur de Champlain,
 Cappitaine ordinaire pour le Roy en la Mer du Ponant. Seconde Edition. A
 Paris, chez Clavde Collet, au Palais, en la gallerie des Prisonniers.
 M.D.C.XXVII. Avec privilege dv Roy_. 12mo. 8 preliminary leaves. Text 158
 leaves, 6 plates. The title-page contains, in addition, a sub-title, giving
 an outline of the contents. The edition of 1627, belonging to the Library
 of Harvard College, contains likewise an illuminated title-page, which we
 here give in heliotype. As this illuminated title-page bears the date of
 1619, it was probably that of the original edition of that date.
 The next and last publication of Champlain was issued in 1632, with the
 following title:--
 4. _Les Voyages de la Novvelle France occidentale, dicte Canada, faits par
 le Sr de Champlain Xainctongeois, Capitaine pour le Roy en la Marine du
 Ponant, & toutes les Descouuertes qu'il a faites en ce païs depuis l'an
 1603, iusques en l'an 1629. Où se voit comme ce pays a esté premierement
 descouuert par les François, sous l'authorité de nos Roys tres-Chrestiens,
 iusques au regne de sa Majesté à present regnante Louis XIII. Roy de France
 & de Navarre. A Paris. Chez Clavde Collet au Palais, en la Gallerie des
 Prisonniers, à l'Estoille d'Or. M.DC.XXXII. Avec Privilege du Roy_.
 There is also a long sub-title, with a statement that the volume contains
 what occurred in New France in 1631. The volume is dedicated to Cardinal
 Richelieu. 4to. 16 preliminary pages. Text 308 pages. 6 plates, which are
 the same as those in the edition of 1619. "Seconde Partie," 310 pages. One
 large general map; table explanatory of map, 8 pages. "Traitté de la
 Marine," 54 pages. 2 plates. "Doctrine Chrestienne" and "L'Oraison
 Dominicale," 20 pages. Another copy gives the name of Sevestre as
 publisher, and another that of Pierre Le Mvr.
 The publication of 1632 is stated by Laverdière to have been reissued in
 1640, with a new title and date, but without further changes. This,
 however, is not found in the National Library at Paris, which contains all
 the other editions and issues. The copies of the edition of 1632 which we
 have consulted are in the Harvard College Library and in the Boston
 It is of importance to refer, as we have done, to the particular copy used,
 for it appears to have been the custom in the case of books printed as
 early as the above, to keep the type standing, and print issues at
 intervals, sometimes without any change in the title-page or date, and yet
 with alterations to some extent in the text. For instance, the copy of the
 publication of 1613 in the Harvard College Library differs from that in
 Mrs. Brown's Library, at Providence, in minor points, and particularly in
 reference to some changes in the small map. The same is true of the
 publication of 1603. The variations are probably in part owing to the lack
 of uniformity in spelling at that period.
 None of Champlain's works had been reprinted until 1830, when there
 appeared, in two volumes, a reprint of the publication of 1632, "at the
 expense of the government, in order to give work to printers." Since then
 there has been published the elaborate work, with extensive annotations, of
 the Abbé Laverdière, as follows:--
 This contains all the works of Champlain above mentioned, and the text is a
 faithful reprint from the early Paris editions. It includes, in addition to
 this, Champlain's narrative of his voyage to the West Indies, in 1598, of
 which the following is the title:--
 _Brief Discovrs des choses plvs remarqvables qve Sammvel Champlain de
 Brovage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiage qu'il en a faict en
 icelles en l'année mil v[c] iiij.[xx].xix. & en l'année mil vj[c] i. comme
 This had never before been published in French, although a translation of
 it had been issued by the Hakluyt Society in 1859. The _MS_. is the only
 one of Champlain's known to exist, excepting a letter to Richelieu,
 published by Laverdière among the "Pièces Justificatives." When used by
 Laverdière it was in the possession of M. Féret, of Dieppe, but has since
 been advertised for sale by the Paris booksellers, Maisonneuve & Co., at
 the price of 15,000 francs, and is now in the possession of M. Pinart.
 The volume printed in 1632 has been frequently compared with that of 1613,
 as if the former were merely a second edition of the latter. But this
 conveys an erroneous idea of the relation between the two. In the first
 place, the volume of 1632 contains what is not given in any of the previous
 publications of Champlain. That is, it extends his narrative over the
 period from 1620 to 1632. It likewise goes over the same ground that is
 covered not only by the volume of 1613, but also by the other still later
 publications of Champlain, up to 1620. It includes, moreover, a treatise on
 navigation. In the second place, it is an abridgment, and not a second
 edition in any proper sense. It omits for the most part personal details
 and descriptions of the manners and customs of the Indians, so that very
 much that is essential to the full comprehension of Champlain's work as an
 observer and explorer is gone. Moreover, there seems a to be some internal
 evidence indicating that this abridgment was not made by Champlain himself,
 and Laverdière suggests that the work has been tampered with by another
 hand. Thus, all favorable allusions to the Récollets, to whom Champlain was
 friendly, are modified or expunged, while the Jesuits are made to appear in
 a prominent and favorable light. This question has been specially
 considered by Laverdière in his introduction to the issue of 1632, to which
 the reader is referred.
 The language used by Champlain is essentially the classic French of the
 time of Henry IV. The dialect or patois of Saintonge, his native province,
 was probably understood and spoken by him; but we have not discovered any
 influence of it in his writings, either in respect to idiom or vocabulary.
 An occasional appearance at court, and his constant official intercourse
 with public men of prominence at Paris and elsewhere, rendered necessary
 strict attention to the language he used.
 But though using in general the language of court and literature, he
 offends not unfrequently against the rules of grammar and logical
 arrangement. Probably his busy career did not allow him to read, much less
 study, at least in reference to their style, such masterpieces of
 literature as the "Essais" of Montaigne, the translations of Amyot, or the
 "Histoire Universelle" of D'Aubigné. The voyages of Cartier he undoubtedly
 read; but, although superior in point of literary merit to Champlaih's
 writings, they were, by no-means without their blemishes, nor were they
 worthy of being compared with the classical authors to which we have
 alluded. But Champlain's discourse is so straightforward, and the thought
 so simple and clear, that the meaning is seldom obscure, and his occasional
 violations of grammar and looseness of style are quite pardonable in one
 whose occupations left him little time for correction and revision. Indeed,
 one rather wonders that the unpretending explorer writes so well. It is the
 thought, not the words, which occupies his attention. Sometimes, after
 beginning a period which runs on longer than usual, his interest in what he
 has to narrate seems so completely to occupy him that he forgets the way in
 which he commenced, and concludes in a manner not in logical accordance
 with the beginning. We subjoin a passage or two illustrative of his
 inadvertencies in respect to language. They are from his narrative of the
 voyage of 1603, and the text of the Paris edition is followed:
 1. "Au dit bout du lac, il y a des peuples qui sont cabannez, puis on entre
 dans trois autres riuieres, quelques trois ou quatre iournees dans chacune,
 où au bout desdites riuieres, il y a deux ou trois manières de lacs, d'où
 prend la source du Saguenay." Chap. iv.
 2. "Cedit iour rengeant tousiours ladite coste du Nort, iusques à vn lieu
 où nous relachasmes pour les vents qui nous estoient contraires, où il y
 auoit force rochers & lieux fort dangereux, nous feusmes trois iours en
 attendant le beau temps" Chap. v.
 3. "Ce seroit vn grand bien qui pourrait trouuer à la coste de la Floride
 quelque passage qui allast donner proche du & susdit grand lac." Chap. x.
 4. "lesquelles [riuieres] vont dans les terres, où le pays y est tres-bon &
 fertille, & de fort bons ports." Chap. x.
 5. "Il y a aussi vne autre petite riuiere qui va tomber comme à moitié
 chemin de celle par où reuint ledict sieur Preuert, où sont comme deux
 manières de lacs en ceste-dicte riuiere." Chap. xii.
 The following passages are taken at random from the voyages of 1604-10, as
 illustrative of Champlain's style in general:
 1. Explorations in the Bay of Fundy, Voyage of 1604-8. "De la riuiere
 sainct Iean nous fusmes à quatre isles, en l'vne desquelles nous mismes
 pied à terre, & y trouuasmes grande quantité d'oiseaux appeliez Margos,
 don't nous prismes force petits, qui sont aussi bons que pigeonneaux. Le
 sieur de Poitrincourt s'y pensa esgarer: Mais en fin il reuint à nostre
 barque comme nous l'allions cerchant autour de isle, qui est esloignee de
 la terre ferme trois lieues." Chap iii.
 2. Explorations in the Vineyard Sound. Voyage of 1604-8. "Comme nous eusmes
 fait quelques six ou sept lieues nous eusmes cognoissance d'vne isle que
 nous nommasmes la soupçonneuse, pour auoir eu plusieurs fois croyance de
 loing que ce fut autre chose qu'vne isle, puis le vent nous vint contraire,
 qui nous fit relascher au lieu d'où nous estions partis, auquel nous fusmes
 deux on trois jours sans que durant ce temps il vint aucun sauuage se
 presenter à nous." Chap. xv.
 3. Fight with the Indians on the Richelieu. Voyage of 1610.
 "Les Yroquois s'estonnoient du bruit de nos arquebuses, & principalement de
 ce que les balles persoient mieux que leurs flesches; & eurent tellement
 l'espouuante de l'effet qu'elles faisoient, voyant plusieurs de leurs
 compaignons tombez morts, & blessez, que de crainte qu'ils auoient, croyans
 ces coups estre sans remede ils se iettoient par terre, quand ils
 entendoient le bruit: aussi ne tirions gueres à faute, & deux ou trois
 balles à chacun coup, & auios la pluspart du temps nos arquebuses appuyees
 sur le bord de leur barricade." Chap. ii.
 The following words, found in the writings of Champlain, are to be noted as
 used by him in a sense different from the ordinary one, or as not found in
 the dictionaries. They occur in the voyages of 1603 and 1604-11. The
 numbers refer to the continuous pagination in the Quebec edition:
 _appoil_, 159. A species of duck. (?)
 _catalougue_, 266. A cloth used for wrapping up a dead body. Cf. Spanish
 _déserter_, 211, _et passim_. In the sense of to clear up a new country by
 removing the trees, &c.
 _esplan_, 166. A small fish, like the _équille_ of Normandy.
 _estaire_, 250. A kind of mat. Cf. Spanish _estera_.
 _fleurir_, 247. To break or foam, spoken of the waves of the sea.
 _legueux_, 190. Watery.(?) Or for _ligneux_, fibrous.(?)
 _marmette_, 159. A kind of sea-bird.
 _Matachias_, 75, _et passim_. Indian word for strings of beads, used to
 ornament the person.
 _papesi_, 381. Name of one of the sails of a vessel.
 _petunoir_, 79. Pipe for smoking.
 _Pilotua_, 82, _et passim_. Word used by the Indians for soothsayer or
 _souler_, 252. In sense of, to be wont, accustomed.
 _truitière_, 264. Trout-brook.
 The first and main aim of the translator has been to give the exact sense
 of the original, and he has endeavored also to reproduce as far as possible
 the spirit and tone of Champlain's narrative. The important requisite in a
 translation, that it should be pure and idiomatic English, without any
 transfer of the mode of expression peculiar to the foreign language, has
 not, it is hoped, been violated, at least to any great extent. If,
 perchance, a French term or usage has been transferred to the translation,
 it is because it has seemed that the sense or spirit would be better
 conveyed in this way. At best, a translation comes short of the original,
 and it is perhaps pardonable at times to admit a foreign term, if by this
 means the sense or style seems to be better preserved. It is hoped that the
 present work has been done so as to satisfy the demands of the historian,
 who may find it convenient to use it in his investigations.
 C. P. O.
 BOSTON, June 17, 1880
 Made in New France in the year 1603.
 The customs, mode of life, marriages, wars, and dwellings of the Savages of
 Canada. Discoveries for more than four hundred and fifty leagues in the
 country. The tribes, animals, rivers, lakes, islands, lands, trees, and
 fruits found there. Discoveries on the coast of La Cadie, and numerous
 mines existing there according to the report of the Savages.
 Claude de Monstr'oeil, having his store in the Court of the Palace, under
 the name of Jesus.
 To the very noble, high and powerful Lord Charles De Montmorency, Chevalier
 of the Orders of the King, Lord of Ampuille and of Meru, Count of
 Secondigny, Viscount of Melun, Baron of Chateauneuf and of Gonnort, Admiral
 of France and of Brittany.
 _My Lord,
 Although many have written about the country of Canada, I have nevertheless
 been unwilling to rest satisfied with their report, and have visited these
 regions expressly in order to be able to render a faithful testimony to the
 truth, which you will see, if it be your pleasure, in the brief narrative
 which I address to you, and which I beg you may find agreeable, and I pray
 God for your ever increasing greatness and prosperity, my Lord, and shall
 remain all my life,
  Your most humble
    and obedient servant,
      S. CHAMPLAIN_.
 By license of the King, given at Paris on the 15th of November, 1603,
 signed Brigard.
 Permission is given to Sieur de Champlain to have printed by such printer
 as may seem good to him, a book which he has composed, entitled, "The
 Savages, or Voyage of Sieur de Champlain, made in the Year 1603;" and all
 book-sellers and printers of this kingdom are forbidden to print, sell, or
 distribute said book, except with the consent of him whom he shall name and
 choose, on penalty of a fine of fifty crowns, of confiscation, and all
 expenses, as is more fully stated in the license.
 Said Sieur de Champlain, in accordance with his license, has chosen and
 given permission to Claude de Monstr'oeil, book-seller to the University of
 Paris, to print said book, and he has ceded and transferred to him his
 license, so that no other person can print or have printed, sell, or
 distribute it, during the time of five years, except with the consent of
 said Monstr'oeil, on the penalties contained in the said license.
 We set out from Honfleur on the 15th of March, 1603. On the same day we put
 back to the roadstead of Havre de Grâce, the wind not being favorable. On
 Sunday following, the 16th, we set sail on our route. On the 17th, we
 sighted d'Orgny and Grenesey, [121] islands between the coast of Normandy
 and England. On the 18th of the same month, we saw the coast of Brittany.
 On the 19th, at 7 o'clock in the evening we reckoned that we were off
 Ouessant. [122] On the 21st, at 7 o'clock in the morning, we met seven
 Flemish vessels, coming, as we thought from the Indies. On Easter day, the
 30th of the same month, we encountered a great tempest, which seemed to be
 more lightning than wind, and which lasted for seventeen days, though not
 continuing so severe as it was on the first two days. During this time, we
 lost more than we gained. On the 16th of April, to the delight of all, the
 weather began to be more favorable, and the sea calmer than it had been, so
 that we continued our course until the 18th, when we fell in with a very
 lofty iceberg. The next day we sighted a bank of ice more than eight
 leagues long, accompanied by an infinite number of smaller banks, which
 prevented us from going on. In the opinion of the pilot, these masses of
 ice were about a hundred or a hundred and twenty leagues from Canada. We
 were in latitude 45 deg. 40', and continued our course in 44 deg..
 On the 2nd of May we reached the Bank at 11 o'clock in the forenoon, in 44
 deg. 40'. On the 6th of the same month we had approached so near to land
 that we heard the sea beating on the shore, which, however, we could not
 see on account of the dense fog, to which these coasts are subject. [123]
 For this reason we put out to sea again a few leagues, until the next
 morning, when the weather being clear, we sighted land, which was Cape
 St. Mary. [124]
 On the 12th we were overtaken by a severe gale, lasting two days. On the
 15th we sighted the islands of St. Peter. [125] On the 17th we fell in with
 an ice-bank near Cape Ray, six leagues in length, which led us to lower
 sail for the entire night that we might avoid the danger to which we were
 exposed. On the next day we set sail and sighted Cape Ray, [126] the
 islands of St. Paul, and Cape St. Lawrence. [127] The latter is on the
 mainland lying to the south, and the distance from it to Cape Ray is
 eighteen leagues, that being the breadth of the entrance to the great bay
 of Canada. [128] On the same day, about ten o'clock in the morning, we fell
 in with another bank of ice, more than eight leagues in length. On the
 20th, we sighted an island some twenty-five or thirty leagues long, called
 _Anticosty_, [129] which marks the entrance to the river of Canada. The
 next day, we sighted Gaspé, [130] a very high land, and began to enter the
 river of Canada, coasting along the south side as far as Montanne, [131]
 distant sixty-five leagues from Gaspé. Proceeding on our course, we came in
 sight of the Bic, [132] twenty leagues from Mantanne and on the southern
 shore; continuing farther, we crossed the river to Tadoussac, fifteen
 leagues from the Bic. All this region is very high, barren, and
 On the 24th of the month, we came to anchor before Tadoussac, [133] and on
 the 26th entered this port, which has the form of a cove. It is at the
 mouth of the river Saguenay, where there is a current and tide of
 remarkable swiftness and a great depth of water, and where there are
 sometimes troublesome winds, [134] in consequence of the cold they bring.
 It is stated that it is some forty-five or fifty leagues up to the first
 fall in this river, and that it flows from the northwest. The harbor of
 Tadoussac is small, in which only ten or twelve vessels could lie; but
 there is water enough on the east, sheltered from the river Saguenay, and
 along a little mountain, which is almost cut off by the river. On the shore
 there are very high mountains, on which there is little earth, but only
 rocks and sand, which are covered, with pine, cypress and fir, [135] and a
 smallish species of trees. There is a small pond near the harbor, enclosed
 by wood-covered mountains. At the entrance to the harbor, there are two
 points: the one on the west side extending a league out into the river, and
 called St. Matthew's Point; [136] the other on the southeast side extending
 out a quarter of a league, and called All-Devils' Point. This harbor is
 exposed to the winds from the south, southeast, and south-southwest. The
 distance from St. Matthew's Point to All-Devils' Point is nearly a league;
 both points are dry at low tide.
 121. Alderney and Guernsey. French maps at the present day for Alderney
      have d'Aurigny.
 122. The islands lying off Finistère, on the western extremity of Brittany
      in France.
 123. The shore which they approached was probably Cape Pine, east of
      Placentia Bay, Newfoundland.
 124. In Placentia bay, on the southern coast of Newfoundland.
 125. West of Placentia Bay.
 126. Cape Ray is northwest of the islands of St. Peter.
 127. Cape St. Lawrence, now called Cape North, is the northern extremity of
      the island of Cape Breton, and the island of St. Paul is a few miles
      north of it.
 128. The Gulf or Bay of St. Lawrence. It was so named by Jacques Cartier on
      his second voyage, in 1535. Nous nommasmes la dicte baye la Sainct
      Laurens, _Brief Recit_, 1545, D'Avezac ed. p. 8. The northeastern part
      of it is called on De Laet's map, "Grand Baye."
 129. "This island is about one hundred and forty miles long,
      thirty-five miles broad at its widest part, with an average
      breadth of twenty-seven and one-half miles."--_Le Moine's
      Chronicles of the St.  Lawrence_, p.100. It was named by Cartier
      in 1535, the Island of the Assumption, having been discovered on
      the 15th of August, the festival of the Assumption. Nous auons
      nommes l'ysle de l'Assumption.--_Brief Recit_, 1545, D'Avenzac's
      ed. p. 9. Alfonse, in his report of his voyage of 1542, calls it
      the _Isle de l'Ascension_, probably by mistake. "The Isle of
      Ascension is a goodly isle and a goodly champion land, without
      any hills, standing all upon white rocks and Alabaster, all
      covered with wild beasts, as bears, Luserns, Porkespicks."
      _Hakluyt_, Vol. III. p. 292. Of this island De Laet says, "Elle
      est nommee el langage des Sauvages _Natiscotec_"--_Hist. du
      Nouveau Monde_, a Leyde, 1640, p.42. _Vide also Wyet's Voyage_ in
      Hakluyt, Vol. III. p. 241. Laverdière says the Montagnais now
      call it _Natascoueh_, which signifies, _where the bear is
      caught_. He cites Thevet, who says it is called by the savages,
      _Naticousti_, by others _Laisple_. The use of the name Anticosty
      by Champlain, now spelled Anticosti, would imply that its
      corruption from the original, _Natiscotec_, took place at a very
      early date. Or it is possible that Champlain wrote it as he heard
      it pronounced by the natives, and his orthography may best
      represent the original.
 130. _Gachepé_, so written in the text, subsequently written by the author
      _Gaspey_, but now generally _Gaspé_. It is supposed to have been
      derived from the Abnaquis word _Katsepi8i_, which means what is
      separated from the rest, and to have reference to a remarkable rock,
      three miles above Cape Gaspé, separated from the shore by the violence
      of the waves, the incident from which it takes its name.--_Vide
      Voyages de Champlain_, ed. 1632, p. 91; _Chronicles of the St.
      Lawrence_, by J. M. Le Moine, p. 9.
 131. A river flowing into the St. Lawrence from the south in latitude 48
      deg. 52' and in longitude west from Greenwich 67 deg. 32', now known
      as the Matane.
 132. For Bic, Champlain has _Pic_, which is probably a typographical error.
      It seems probable that Bic is derived from the French word _bicoque_,
      which means a place of small consideration, a little paltry town. Near
      the site of the ancient Bic, we now have, on modern maps, _Bicoque_
      Rocks, _Bicquette_ Light, _Bic_ Island, _Bic_ Channel, and _Bic_
      Anchorage. As suggested by Laverdière, this appears to be the
      identical harbor entered by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, who named if the
      Isles of Saint John, because he entered it on the day of the beheading
      of St. John, which was the 29th of August. Nous les nommasmes les
      Ysleaux sainct Jehan, parce que nous y entrasmes le jour de la
      decollation dudict sainct. _Brief Récit_, 1545, D'Avezac's ed. p. 11.
      Le Jeune speaks of the _Isle du Bic_ in 1635. _Vide Relation des
      Jésuites_, p. 19.
 133. _Tadoussac_, or _Tadouchac_, is derived from the word _totouchac_,
      which in Montagnais means _breasts_, and Saguenay signifies _water
      which springs forth_, from the Montagnais word _saki-nip_.--_Vide
      Laverdière in loco_. Tadoussac, or the breasts from which water
      springs forth, is naturally suggested by the rocky elevations at the
      base of which the Saguenay flows.
 134. _Impetueux_, plainly intended to mean _troublesome_, as may be seen
      from the context.
 135. Pine, _pins_. The white pine, _Pinus strobus_, or _Strobus
      Americanus_, grows as far north as Newfoundland, and as far south as
      Georgia. It was observed by Captain George Weymouth on the Kennebec,
      and hence deals afterward imported into England were called _Weymouth
      pine_--_Vide Chronological History of Plants_, by Charles Picketing,
      M.D., Boston, 1879, p. 809. This is probably the species here referred
      to by Champlain. Cypress, _Cyprez_. This was probably the American
      arbor vitæ. _Thuja occidentalis_, a species which, according to the
      Abbé Laverdière, is found in the neighborhood of the Saguenay.
      Champlain employed the same word to designate the American savin, or
      red cedar. _Juniperus Virginiana_, which he found on Cape Cod--_Vide_
      Vol. II. p. 82. Note 168.
      Fir, _sapins_. The fir may have been the white spruce, _Abies alba_,
      or the black spruce, _Abies nigra_, or the balsam fir or Canada
      balsam, _Abies balsamea_, or yet the hemlock spruce, _Abies
 136. _St. Matthew's Point_, now known as Point aux Allouettes, or Lack
      Point.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p 165, note 292. _All-Devils' Point_, now
      called _Pointe aux Vaches_. Both of these points had changed their
      names before the publication of Champlain's ed., 1632.--_Vide_ p. 119
      of that edition. The last mentioned was called by Champlain, in 1632,
      _pointe aux roches_. Laverdière thinks _ro_ches was a typographical
      error, as Sagard, about the same time, writes _vaches_.--_Vide Sagard.
      Histoire du Canada_, 1636, Stross. ed., Vol I p. 150.
      We naturally ask why it was called _pointe aux vaches_, or point of
      cows. An old French apothegm reads _Le diable est aux vaches_, the
      devil is in the cows, for which in English we say, "the devil is to
      pay." May not this proverb have suggested _vaches_ as a synonyme of
 On the 27th, we went to visit the savages at St. Matthew's point, distant a
 league from Tadoussac, accompanied by the two savages whom Sieur du Pont
 Gravé took to make a report of what they had seen in France, and of the
 friendly reception the king had given them. Having landed, we proceeded to
 the cabin of their grand Sagamore [137] named _Anadabijou_, whom we found
 with some eighty or a hundred of his companions celebrating a _tabagie_,
 that is a banquet. He received us very cordially, and according to the
 custom of his country, seating us near himself, with all the savages
 arranged in rows on both sides of the cabin. One of the savages whom we had
 taken with us began to make an address, speaking of the cordial reception
 the king had given them, and the good treatment they had received in
 France, and saying they were assured that his Majesty was favorably
 disposed towards them, and was desirous of peopling their country, and of
 making peace with their enemies, the Iroquois, or of sending forces to
 conquer them. He also told them of the handsome manors, palaces, and houses
 they had seen, and of the inhabitants and our mode of living. He was
 listened to with the greatest possible silence. Now, after he had finished
 his address, the grand Sagamore, Anadabijou, who had listened to it
 attentively, proceeded to take some tobacco, and give it to Sieur du Pont
 Gravé of St. Malo, myself, and some other Sagamores, who were near him.
 After a long smoke, he began to make his address to all, speaking with
 gravity, stopping at times a little, and then resuming and saying, that
 they truly ought to be very glad in having his Majesty for a great friend.
 They all answered with one voice, _Ho, ho, ho_, that is to say _yes, yes_.
 He continuing his address said that he should be very glad to have his
 Majesty people their land, and make war upon their enemies; that there was
 no nation upon earth to which they were more kindly disposed than to the
 French. finally he gave them all to understand the advantage and profit
 they could receive from his Majesty. After he had finished his address, we
 went out of his cabin, and they began to celebrate their _tabagie_ or
 banquet, at which they have elk's meat, which is similar to beef, also that
 of the bear, seal and beaver, these being their ordinary meats, including
 also quantities of fowl. They had eight or ten boilers full of meats, in
 the middle of this cabin, separated some six feet from each other, each one
 having its own fire. They were seated on both sides, as I stated before,
 each one having his porringer made of bark. When the meat is cooked, some
 one distributes to each his portion in his porringer, when they eat in a
 very filthy manner. For when their hands are covered with fat, they rub
 them on their heads or on the hair of their dogs of which they have large
 numbers for hunting. Before their meat was cooked, one of them arose, took
 a dog and hopped around these boilers from one end of the cabin to the
 other. Arriving in front of the great Sagamore, he threw his dog violently
 to the ground, when all with one voice exclaimed, _Ho, ho, ho_, after which
 he went back to his place. Instantly another arose and did the same, which
 performance was continued until the meat was cooked. Now after they had
 finished their _tabagie_, they began to dance, taking the heads of their
 enemies, which were slung on their backs, as a sign of joy. One or two of
 them sing, keeping time with their hands, which they strike on their knees:
 sometimes they stop, exclaiming, _Ho, ho, ho_, when they begin dancing
 again, puffing like a man out of breath. They were having this celebration
 in honor of the victory they had obtained over the Iroquois, several
 hundred of whom they had killed, whose heads they had cut off and had with
 them to contribute to the pomp of their festivity. Three nations had
 engaged in the war, the Etechemins, Algonquins, and Montagnais. [138]
 These, to the number of a thousand, proceeded to make war upon the
 Iroquois, whom they encountered at the mouth of the river of the Iroquois,
 and of whom they killed a hundred. They carry on war only by surprising
 their enemies; for they would not dare to do so otherwise, and fear too
 much the Iroquois, who are more numerous than the Montagnais, Etechemins,
 and Algonquins.
 On the 28th of this month they came and erected cabins at the harbor of
 Tadoussac, where our vessel was. At daybreak their grand Sagamore came out
 from his cabin and went about all the others, crying out to them in a loud
 voice to break camp to go to Tadoussac, where their good friends were. Each
 one immediately took down his cabin in an incredibly short time, and the
 great captain was the first to take his canoe and carry it to the water,
 where he embarked his wife and children and a quantity of furs. Thus were
 launched nearly two hundred canoes, which go wonderfully fast; for,
 although our shallop was well manned, yet they went faster than ourselves.
 Two only do the work of propelling the boat, a man and a woman. Their
 canoes are some eight or nine feet long, and a foot or a foot and a half
 broad in the middle, growing narrower towards the two ends. They are very
 liable to turn over, if one does not understand how to manage them, for
 they are made of the bark of trees called _bouille_, [139] strengthened on
 the inside by little ribs of wood strongly and neatly made. They are so
 light that a man can easily carry one, and each canoe can carry the weight
 of a pipe. When they wish to go overland to some river where they have
 business, they carry their canoes with them.
 Their cabins are low and made like tents, being covered with the same kind
 of bark as that before mentioned. The whole top for the space of about a
 foot they leave uncovered, whence the light enters; and they make a number
 of fires directly in the middle of the cabin, in which there are sometimes
 ten families at once. They sleep on skins, all together, and their dogs
 with them. [140]
 They were in number a thousand persons, men, women and children. The place
 at St. Matthew's Point, where they were first encamped, is very pleasant.
 They were at the foot of a small slope covered with trees, firs and
 cypresses. At St. Matthew's Point there is a small level place, which is
 seen at a great distance. On the top of this hill there is a level tract of
 land, a league long, half a league broad, covered with trees. The soil is
 very sandy, and contains good pasturage. Elsewhere there are only rocky
 mountains, which are very barren. The tide rises about this slope, but at
 low water leaves it dry for a full half league out.
 137. _Sagamo_, thus written in the French According to Laflèche, as cited
      by Laverdière, this word, in the Montagnais language, is derived from
      _tchi_, great and _okimau_, chief, and consequently signifies the
      Great Chief.
 138. The Etechemins, may be said in general terms to have occupied the
      territory from St. John, N. B., to Mount Desert Island, in Maine, and
      perhaps still further west, but not south of Saco. The Algonquins here
      referred to were those who dwelt on the Ottawa River. The Montagnais
      occupied the region on both sides of the Saguenay, having their
      trading centre at Tadoussac. War had been carried on for a period we
      know not how long, perhaps for several centuries, between these allied
      tribes and the Iroquois.
 139. _Bouille_ for _bouleau_, the birch-tree. _Betula papyracea_, popularly
      known as the paper or canoe birch. It is a large tree, the bark white,
      and splitting into thin layers. It is common in New England, and far
      to the north The white birch, _Betula alba_, of Europe and Northern
      Asia, is used for boat-building at the present day.--_Vide
      Chronological History of Plants_, by Charles Pickering, M.D., Boston,
      1879, p. 134.
 140. The dog was the only domestic animal found among the aborigines of
      this country. "The Australians," says Dr. Pickering, "appear to be the
      only considerable portion of mankind destitute of the companionship of
      the dog. The American tribes, from the Arctic Sea to Cape Horn, had
      the companionship of the dog, and certain remarkable breeds had been
      developed before the visit of Columbus" (F. Columbus 25); further,
      according to Coues, the cross between the coyote and female dog is
      regularly procured by our northwestern tribes, and, according to Gabb,
      "dogs one-fourth coyote are pointed out; the fact therefore seems
      established that the coyote or American barking wolfe, _Canis
      latrans_, is the dog in its original wild state."--_Vide Chronological
      History of Plants_, etc., by Charles Pickering, M.D., Boston, 1879, p.
      "It was believed by some for a length of time that the wild dog was of
      recent introduction to Australia: this is not so."--_Vide Aborigines
      of Victoria_, by R. Brough Smyth, London, 1878, Vol. 1. p. 149. The
      bones of the wild dog have recently been discovered in Australia, at a
      depth of excavation, and in circumstances, which prove that his
      existence there antedates the introduction of any species of the dog
      by Europeans. The Australians appear, therefore, to be no exception to
      the universal companionship of the dog with man.
 On the 9th of June the savages proceeded to have a rejoicing all together,
 and to celebrate their _tabagie_, which I have before described, and to
 dance, in honor of their victory over their enemies. Now, after they had
 feasted well, the Algonquins, one of the three nations, left their cabins
 and went by themselves to a public place. Here they arranged all their
 wives and daughters by the side of each other, and took position themselves
 behind them, all singing in the manner I have described before. Suddenly
 all the wives and daughters proceeded to throw off their robes of skins,
 presenting themselves stark naked, and exposing their sexual parts. But
 they were adorned with _matachiats_, that is beads and braided strings,
 made of porcupine quills, which they dye in various colors. After finishing
 their songs, they all said together, _Ho, ho, ho:_ at the same instant all
 the wives and daughters covered themselves with their robes, which were at
 their feet. Then, after stopping a short time, all suddenly beginning to
 sing throw off their robes as before. They do not stir from their position
 while dancing, and make various gestures and movements of the body, lifting
 one foot and then the other, at the same time striking upon the ground.
 Now, during the performance of this dance, the Sagamore of the Algonquins,
 named _Besouat_, was seated before these wives and daughters, between two
 sticks, on which were hung the heads of their enemies. Sometimes he arose
 and went haranguing, and saying to the Montagnais and Etechemins: "Look!
 how we rejoice in the victory that we have obtained over our enemies; you
 must do the same, so that we may be satisfied." Then all said together,
 _Ho, ho, ho_. After returning to his position, the grand Sagamore together
 with all his companions removed their robes, making themselves stark naked
 except their sexual parts, which are covered with a small piece of skin.
 Each one took what seemed good to him, as _matachiats_, hatchets, swords,
 kettles, fat, elk flesh, seal, in a word each one had a present, which they
 proceeded to give to the Algonquins. After all these ceremonies, the dance
 ceased, and the Algonquins, men and women, carried their presents into
 their cabins. Then two of the most agile men of each nation were taken,
 whom they caused to run, and he who was the fastest in the race, received a
 All these people have a very cheerful disposition, laughing often; yet at
 the same time they are somewhat phlegmatic. They talk very deliberately, as
 if desiring to make themselves well understood, and stopping suddenly, they
 reflect for a long time, when they resume their discourse. This is their
 usual manner at their harangues in council, where only the leading men, the
 elders, are present, the women and children not attending at all.
 All these people suffer so much sometimes from hunger, on account of the
 severe cold and snow, when the animals and fowl on which they live go away
 to warmer countries, that they are almost constrained to eat one another. I
 am of opinion that if one were to teach them how to live, and instruct them
 in the cultivation of the soil and in other respects, they would learn very
 easily, for I can testify that many of them have good judgment and respond
 very appropriately to whatever question may be put to them. [141] They have
 the vices of taking revenge and of lying badly, and are people in whom it
 is not well to put much confidence, except with caution and with force at
 hand. They promise well, but keep their word badly.
 Most of them have no law, so far as I have been able to observe or learn
 from the great Sagamore, who told me that they really believed there was a
 God, who created all things. Whereupon I said to him: that, "Since they
 believed in one sole God, how had he placed them in the world, and whence
 was their origin." He replied: that, "After God had made all things, he
 took a large number of arrows, and put them in the ground; whence sprang
 men and women, who had been multiplying in the world up to the present
 time, and that this was their origin." I answered that what he said was
 false, but that there really was one only God, who had created all things
 upon earth and in the heavens. Seeing all these things so perfect, but that
 there was no one to govern here on earth, he took clay from the ground, out
 of which he created Adam our first father. While Adam was sleeping, God
 took a rib from his side, from which he formed Eve, whom he gave to him as
 a companion, and, I told him, that it was true that they and ourselves had
 our origin in this manner, and not from arrows, as they suppose. He said
 nothing, except that he acknowledged what I said, rather than what he had
 asserted. I asked him also if he did not believe that there was more than
 one only God. He told me their belief was that there was a God, a Son, a
 Mother, and the Sun, making four; that God, however, was above all, that
 the Son and the Sun were good, since they received good things from them;
 but the Mother, he said, was worthless, and ate them up; and the Father not
 very good. I remonstrated with him on his error, and contrasted it with our
 faith, in which he put some little confidence. I asked him if they had
 never seen God, nor heard from their ancestors that God had come into the
 world. He said that they had never seen him; but that formerly there were
 five men who went towards the setting sun, who met God, who asked them:
 "Where are you going?" they answered: "We are going in search of our
 living." God replied to them: "You will find it here." They went on,
 without paying attention to what God had said to them, when he took a stone
 and touched two of them with it, whereupon they were changed to stones; and
 he said again to the three others: "Where are you going?" They answered as
 before, and God said to them again: "Go no farther, you will find it here."
 And seeing that nothing came to them, they went on; when God took two
 sticks, with which he touched the two first, whereupon they were
 transformed into sticks, when the fifth one stopped, not wishing to go
 farther. And God asked him again: "Where are you going?" "I am going in
 search of my living." "Stay and thou shalt find it." He staid without
 advancing farther, and God gave him some meat, which he ate. After making
 good cheer, he returned to the other savages, and related to them all the
 He told me also that another time there was a man who had a large quantity
 of tobacco (a plant from which they obtain what they smoke), and that God
 came to this man, and asked him where his pipe was. The man took his pipe,
 and gave it to God, who smoked much. After smoking to his satisfaction, God
 broke the pipe into many pieces, and the man asked: "Why hast thou broken
 my pipe? thou seest in truth that I have not another." Then God took one
 that he had, and gave it to him, saying: "Here is one that I will give you,
 take it to your great Sagamore; let him keep it, and if he keep it well, he
 will not want for any thing whatever, neither he nor all his companions."
 The man took the pipe, and gave it to his great Sagamore; and while he kept
 it, the savages were in want of nothing whatever: but he said that
 afterwards the grand Sagamore lost this pipe, which was the cause of the
 severe famines they sometimes have. I asked him if he believed all that; he
 said yes, and that it was the truth. Now I think that this is the reason
 why they say that God is not very good. But I replied, "that God was in all
 respects good, and that it was doubtless the Devil who had manifested
 himself to those men, and that if they would believe as we did in God they
 would not want for what they had need of; that the sun which they saw, the
 moon and the stars, had been created by this great God, who made heaven and
 earth, but that they have no power except that which God has given them;
 that we believe in this great God, who by His goodness had sent us His dear
 Son who, being conceived of the Holy Spirit, was clothed with human flesh
 in the womb of the Virgin Mary, lived thirty years on earth, doing an
 infinitude of miracles, raising the dead, healing the sick, driving out
 devils, giving sight to the blind, teaching men the will of God his Father,
 that they might serve, honor and worship Him, shed his blood, suffered and
 died for us, and our sins, and ransomed the human race, that, being buried,
 he rose again, descended into hell, and ascended into heaven, where he is
 seated on the right hand of God his Father." [142] I told him that this was
 the faith of all Christians who believe in the Father, Son, and Holy
 Spirit, that these, nevertheless, are not three Gods, but one the same and
 only God, and a trinity in which there is no before nor after, no greater
 nor smaller; that the Virgin Mary, mother of the Son of God, and all the
 men and women who have lived in this world doing the commandments of God,
 and enduring martyrdom for his name, and who by the permission of God have
 done miracles, and are saints in heaven in his paradise, are all of them
 praying this Great Divine Majesty to pardon us our errors and sins which we
 commit against His law and commandments. And thus, by the prayers of the
 saints in heaven and by our own prayers to his Divine Majesty, He gives
 what we have need of, and the devil has no power over us and can do us no
 harm. I told them that if they had this belief, they would be like us, and
 that the devil could no longer do them any harm, and that they would not
 lack what they had need of.
 Then this Sagamore replied to me that he acknowledged what I said. I asked
 him what ceremonies they were accustomed to in praying to their God. He
 told me that they were not accustomed to any ceremonies, but that each
 prayed in his heart as he desired. This is why I believe that they have no
 law, not knowing what it is to worship and pray to God, and living, the
 most of them, like brute beasts. But I think that they would speedily
 become good Christians, if people were to colonize their country, of which
 most of them were desirous.
 There are some savages among them whom they call _Pilotoua_, [143] who have
 personal communications with the devil. Such an one tells them what they
 are to do, not only in regard to war, but other things; and if he should
 command them to execute any undertaking, as to kill a Frenchman or one of
 their own nation, they would obey his command at once.
 They believe, also, that all dreams which they have are real; and many of
 them, indeed, say that they have seen in dreams things which come to pass
 or will come to pass. But, to tell the truth in the matter, these are
 visions of the devil, who deceives and misleads them. This is all that I
 have been able to learn from them in regard to their matters of belief,
 which is of a low, animal nature.
 All these people are well proportioned in body, without any deformity, and
 are also agile. The women are well-shaped, full and plump, and of a swarthy
 complexion, on account of the large amount of a certain pigment with which
 they rub themselves, and which gives them an olive color. They are clothed
 in skins, one part of their body being covered and the other left
 uncovered. In winter they provide for their whole body, for they are
 dressed in good furs, as those of the elk, otter, beaver, seal, stag, and
 hind, which they have in large quantities. In winter, when the snows are
 heavy, they make a sort of _raquette_ [144] two or three times as large as
 those in France. These they attach to their feet, and thus walk upon the
 snow without sinking in; for without them, they could not hunt or make
 their way in many places.
 Their manner of marriage is as follows: When a girl attains the age of
 fourteen or fifteen years, she may have several suitors and friends, and
 keep company with such as she pleases. At the end of some five or six years
 she may choose that one to whom her fancy inclines as her husband, and they
 will live together until the end of their life, unless, after living
 together a certain period, they fail to have children, when the husband is
 at liberty to divorce himself and take another wife, on the ground that his
 own is of no worth. Accordingly, the girls are more free than the wives;
 yet as soon as they are married they are chaste, and their husbands are for
 the most part jealous, and give presents to the father or relatives of the
 girl whom they marry. This is the manner of marriage, and conduct in the
 In regard to their interments, when a man or woman dies, they make a
 trench, in which they put all their property, as kettles, furs, axes, bows
 and arrows, robes, and other things. Then they put the body in the trench,
 and cover it with earth, laying on top many large pieces of wood, and
 erecting over all a piece of wood painted red on the upper part. They
 believe in the immortality of the soul, and say that when they die
 themselves, they shall go to rejoice with their relatives and friends in
 other lands.
 141. _Vide_ Vol. II of this work, p 190.
 142. This summary of the Christian faith is nearly in the words of the
      Apostles Creed.
 143. On _Pilotoua_ or _Pilotois, vide_ Vol. II. note 341.
 144. _Une manière de raquette_. The snow-shoe, which much resembles the
      racket or battledore, an instrument used for striking the ball in the
      game of tennis. This name was given for the want of one more specific.
 On the 11th of June, I went some twelve or fifteen leagues up the Saguenay,
 which is a fine river, of remarkable depth. For I think, judging from what
 I have heard in regard to its source, that it comes from a very high place,
 whence a torrent of water descends with great impetuosity. But the water
 which proceeds thence is not capable of producing such a river as this,
 which, however, only extends from this torrent, where the first fall is, to
 the harbor Tadoussac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, a distance of some
 forty-five or fifty leagues, it being a good league and a half broad at the
 widest place, and a quarter of a league at the narrowest; for which reason
 there is a strong current. All the country, so far as I saw it, consisted
 only of rocky mountains, mostly covered with fir, cypress, and birch; a
 very unattractive region in which I did not find a level tract of land
 either on the one side or the other. There are some islands in the river,
 which are high and sandy. In a word, these are real deserts, uninhabitable
 for animals or birds. For I can testify that when I went hunting in places
 which seemed to me the most attractive, I found nothing whatever but little
 birds, like nightingales and swallows, which come only in summer, as I
 think, on account of the excessive cold there, this river coming from the
 They told me that, after passing the first fall, whence this torrent comes,
 they pass eight other falls, when they go a day's journey without finding
 any; then they pass ten other falls and enter a lake [145] which it
 requires two days to cross, they being able to make easily from twelve to
 fifteen leagues a day. At the other extremity of the lake is found a people
 who live in cabins. Then you enter three other rivers, up each of which the
 distance is a journey of some three or four days. At the extremity of these
 rivers are two or three bodies of water, like lakes, in which the Saguenay
 has its source, from which to Tadoussac is a journey of ten days in their
 canoes. There is a large number of cabins on the border of these rivers,
 occupied by other tribes which come from the north to exchange with the
 Montagnais their beaver and marten skins for articles of merchandise, which
 the French vessels furnish to the Montagnais. These savages from the north
 say that they live within sight of a sea which is salt. If this is the
 case, I think that it is a gulf of that sea which flows from the north into
 the interior, and in fact it cannot be otherwise. [146] This is what I have
 learned in regard to the River Saguenay.
 145. This was Lake St John. This description is given nearly _verbatim_ in
      Vol. II. p. 169.--_Vide_ notes in the same volume, 294, 295. 146.
      Champlain appears to have obtained from the Indians a very correct
      idea not only of the existence but of the character of Hudson's Bay,
      although that bay was not discovered by Hudson till about seven years
      later than this.
 On Wednesday, the eighteenth day of June, we set out from Tadoussac for the
 Fall. [147] We passed near an island called Hare Island, [148] about two
 leagues, from the northern shore and some seven leagues from Tadoussac and
 five leagues from the southern shore. From Hare Island we proceeded along
 the northern coast about half a league, to a point extending out into the
 water, where one must keep out farther. This point is one league [149] from
 an island called _Isle au Coudre_, about two leagues wide, the distance
 from which to the northern shore is a league. This island has a pretty even
 surface, growing narrower towards the two ends. At the western end there
 are meadows and rocky points, which extend out some distance into the
 river. This island is very pleasant on account of the woods surrounding it.
 It has a great deal of slate-rock, and the soil is very gravelly; at its
 extremity there is a rock extending half a league out into the water. We
 went to the north of this island, [150] which is twelve leagues distant
 from Hare Island.
 On the Thursday following, we set out from here and came to anchor in a
 dangerous cove on the northern shore, where there are some meadows and a
 little river, [151] and where the savages sometimes erect their cabins. The
 same day, continuing to coast along on the northern shore, we were obliged
 by contrary winds to put in at a place where there were many very dangerous
 rocks and localities. Here we stayed three days, waiting for fair weather.
 Both the northern and Southern shores here are very mountainous, resembling
 in general those of the Saguenay.
 On Sunday, the twenty-second, we set out for the Island of Orleans, [152]
 in the neighborhood of which are many islands on the southern shore. These
 are low and covered with trees, Seem to be very pleasant, and, so far as I
 could judge, some of them are one or two leagues and others half a league
 in length. About these islands there are only rocks and shallows, so that
 the passage is very dangerous.
 They are distant some two leagues from the mainland on the south. Thence we
 coasted along the Island of Orleans on the south. This is distant a league
 from the mainland on the north, is very pleasant and level, and eight
 leagues long. The coast on the south is low for some two leagues inland;
 the country begins to be low at this island which is perhaps two leagues
 distant from the southern shore. It is very dangerous passing on the
 northern shore, on account of the sand-banks and rocks between the island
 and mainland, and it is almost entirely dry here at low tide.
 At the end of this island I saw a torrent of water [153] which descended
 from a high elevation on the River of Canada. Upon this elevation the land
 is uniform and pleasant, although in the interior high mountains are seen
 some twenty or twenty-five leagues distant, and near the first fall of the
 We came to anchor at Quebec, a narrow passage in the River of Canada, which
 is here some three hundred paces broad. [154] There is, on the northern
 side of this passage, a very high elevation, which falls off on two sides.
 Elsewhere the country is uniform and fine, and there are good tracts full
 of trees, as oaks, cypresses, birches, firs, and aspens, also wild
 fruit-trees and vines which, if they were cultivated, would, in my opinion,
 be as good as our own. Along the shore of Quebec, there are diamonds in
 some slate-rocks, which are better than those of Alençon. From Quebec to
 Hare Island is a distance of twenty-nine leagues.
 147. _Saut de St Louis_, about three leagues above Montreal.
 148. _Isle au Lieure_ Hare Island, so named by Cartier from the great
      number of hares which he found there. Le soir feusmes à ladicte ysle,
      ou trouuasmes grand nombre de lieures, desquelz eusmes quantité: & par
      ce la nommasmes l'ysle es lieures.--_Brief Récit_, par Jacques
      Cartier, 1545, D'Avezac ed p. 45.
      The distances are here overestimated. From Hare Island to the northern
      shore the distance is four nautical miles, and to the southern six.
 149. The point nearest to Hare Island is Cape Salmon, which is about six
      geographical miles from the Isle au Coudres, and we should here
      correct the error by reading not one but two leagues. The author did
      not probably intend to be exact.
 150. _Isle au Coudre.--Vide Brief Récit_, par Jacques Cartier, 1545,
      D'Avezac ed. p. 44; also Vol. II. of this work, p. 172. Charlevoix
      says, whether from tradition or on good authority we know not, that
      "in 1663 an earthquake rooted up a mountain, and threw it upon the
      Isle au Coudres, which made it one-half larger than before."--
      _Letters to the Duchess of Lesdiguieres_, London, 1763, p. 15.
 151. This was probably about two leagues from the Isle aux Coudres, where
      is a small stream which still bears the name La Petite Rivière.
 152. _Isle d'Orléans.--Vide_ Vol. II. p. 173.
 153. On Champlain's map of the harbor of Quebec he calls this "torrent" le
      grand saut de Montmorency, the grand fall of Montmorency. It was named
      by Champlain himself, and in honor of the "noble, high, and powerful
      Charles de Montmorency," to whom the journal of this voyage is
      dedicated. The stream is shallow, "in some places," Charlevoix says,
      "not more than ankle deep." The grandeur or impressiveness of the
      fall, if either of these qualities can be attributed to it, arises
      from its height and not from the volume of water--_Vide_ ed. 1632, p.
      123. On Bellm's Atlas Maritime, 1764, its height is put down at
      _sixty-five feet_. Bayfield's Chart more correctly says 251 feet above
      high water spring tides--_Vide_ Vol. II of this work, note 308.
 154. _Nous vinsmmes mouiller l'ancre à Quebec, qui est vn destroict de
      laditt riuiere de Canadas_. These words very clearly define the
      meaning of Quebec, which is an Indian word, signifying a narrowing or
      a contraction.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p. 175, note 309. The breadth of the
      river at this point is underestimated It is not far from 1320 feet, or
      three-quarters of a mile.
 On Monday, the 23d of this month, we set out from Quebec, where the river
 begins to widen, sometimes to the extent of a league, then a league and a
 half or two leagues at most. The country grows finer and finer; it is
 everywhere low, without rocks for the most part. The northern shore is
 covered with rocks and sand-banks; it is necessary to go along the southern
 one about half a league from the shore. There are some small rivers, not
 navigable, except for the canoes of the savages, and in which there are a
 great many falls. We came to anchor at St. Croix, fifteen leagues distant
 from Quebec; a low point rising up on both sides. [155] The country is fine
 and level, the soil being the best that I had seen, with extensive woods,
 containing, however, but little fir and cypress. There are found there in
 large numbers vines, pears, hazel-nuts, cherries, red and green currants,
 and certain little radishes of the size of a small nut, resembling truffles
 in taste, which are very good when roasted or boiled. All this soil is
 black, without any rocks, excepting that there a large quantity of slate.
 The soil is very soft, and, if well cultivated, would be very productive.
 On the north shore there is a river called Batiscan, [156] extending a
 great distance into the interior, along which the Algonquins sometimes
 come. On the same shore there is another river, [157] three leagues below
 St. Croix, which was as far as Jacques Cartier went up the river at the
 time of his explorations. [158] The above-mentioned river is pleasant,
 extending a considerable distance inland. All this northern shore is very
 even and pleasing.
 On Wednesday, [159] the 24th, we set out from St. Croix, where we had
 stayed over a tide and a half in order to proceed the next day by daylight,
 for this is a peculiar place on account of the great number of rocks in the
 river, which is almost entirely dry at low tide; but at half-flood one can
 begin to advance without difficulty, although it is necessary to keep a
 good watch, lead in hand. The tide rises here nearly three fathoms and a
 The farther we advanced, the finer the country became. After going some
 five leagues and a half, we came to anchor on the northern shore. On the
 Wednesday following, we set out from this place, where the country is
 flatter than the preceding and heavily wooded, as at St. Croix. We passed
 near a small island covered with vines, and came to anchor on the southern
 shore, near a little elevation, upon ascending which we found a level
 country. There is another small island three leagues from St. Croix, near
 the southern shore. [160] We set out on the following Thursday from this
 elevation, and passed by a little island near the northern shore. Here I
 landed at six or more small rivers, up two of which boats can go for a
 considerable distance. Another is some three hundred feet broad, with some
 islands at its mouth. It extends far into the interior, and is the deepest
 of all. [161] These rivers are very pleasant, their shores being covered
 with trees which resemble nut-trees, and have the same odor; but, as I saw
 no fruit, I am inclined to doubt. The savages told me that they bear fruit
 like our own.
 Advancing still farther, we came to an island called St. Éloi; [162] also
 another little island very near the northern shore. We passed between this
 island and the northern shore, the distance from one to the other being
 some hundred and fifty feet; that from the same island to the southern
 shore, a league and a half. We passed also near a river large enough for
 canoes. All the northern shore is very good, and one can sail along there
 without obstruction; but he should keep the lead in hand in order to avoid
 certain points. All this shore along which we coasted consists of shifting
 sands, but a short distance in the interior the land is good.
 The Friday following, we set out from this island, and continued to coast
 along the northern shore very near the land, which is low and abundant in
 trees of good quality as far as the Trois Rivières. Here the temperature
 begins to be somewhat different from that of St. Croix, since the trees are
 more forward here than in any other place that I had yet seen. From the
 Trois Rivières to St. Croix the distance is fifteen leagues. In this river
 [163] there are six islands, three of which are very small, the others
 being from five to six hundred feet long, very pleasant, and fertile so far
 as their small extent goes. There is one of these in the centre of the
 above-mentioned river, confronting the River of Canada, and commanding a
 view of the others, which are distant from the land from four to five
 hundred feet on both sides. It is high on the southern side, but lower
 somewhat on the northern. This would be, in my judgment, a favorable place
 in which to make a settlement, and it could be easily fortified, for its
 situation is strong of itself, and it is near a large lake which is only
 some four leagues distant. This river extends close to the River Saguenay,
 according to the report of the savages, who go nearly a hundred leagues
 northward, pass numerous falls, go overland some five or six leagues, enter
 a lake from which principally the Saguenay has its source, and thence go to
 Tadoussac. [164] I think, likewise, that the settlement of the Trois
 Rivières would be a boon for the freedom of some tribes, who dare not come
 this way in consequence of their enemies, the Iroquois, who occupy the
 entire borders of the River of Canada; but, if it were settled, these
 Iroquois and other savages could be made friendly, or, at least, under the
 protection of this settlement, these savages would come freely without fear
 or danger, the Trois Rivières being a place of passage. All the land that I
 saw on the northern shore is sandy. We ascended this river for about a
 league, not being able to proceed farther on account of the strong current.
 We continued on in a skiff, for the sake of observation, but had not gone
 more than a league when we encountered a very narrow fall, about twelve
 feet wide, on account of which we could not go farther. All the country
 that I saw on the borders of this river becomes constantly more
 mountainous, and contains a great many firs and cypresses, but few trees of
 other kinds.
 155. The Point of St. Croix, where they anchored, must have been what is
      now known as Point Platon. Champlain's distances are rough estimates,
      made under very unfavorable circumstances, and far from accurate.
      Point Platon is about thirty-five miles from Quebec.
 156. Champlain does not mention the rivers precisely in their order. On his
      map of 1612, he has _Contrée de Bassquan_ on the west of Trois
      Rivières. The river Batiscan empties into the St. Lawrence about four
      miles west of the St. Anne--_Vide Atlas Maritime_, by Bellin, 1764;
      _Atlas of the Dominion of Canada_, 1875.
 157. River Jacques Cartier, which is in fact about five miles east of Point
 158. Jacques Cartier did, in fact, ascend the St. Lawrence as far as
      Hochelaga, or Montreal. The Abbé Laverdière suggests that Champlain
      had not at this time seen the reports of Cartier. Had he seen them he
      would hardly have made this statement. Pont Gravé had been here
      several times, and may have been Champlain's incorrect informant.
      _Vide Laverdière in loco_.
 159. Read Tuesday.
 160. Richelieu Island, so called by the French, as early as 1635, nearly
      opposite Dechambeau Point.--_Vide Laurie's Chart_. It was called St
      Croix up to 1633. _Laverdière in loco_ The Indians called it _Ka
      ouapassiniskakhi_.--_Jésuit Relations_, 1635, p. 13.
 161. This river is now known as the Sainte Anne. Champlain says they named
      it _Rivière Saincte Marie_--_Vide_ Quebec ed. Tome III. p. 175; Vol.
      II. p 201 of this work.
 162. An inconsiderable island near Batiscan, not laid down on the charts.
 163. The St. Maurice, anciently known as _Trois Rivièrs_, because two
      islands in its mouth divide it into three channels. Its Indian name,
      according to Père Le Jeune, was _Metaberoutin_. It appears to be the
      same river mentioned by Cartier in his second voyage, which he
      explored and reported as shallow and of no importance. He found in it
      four small islands, which may afterward have been subdivided into six.
      He named it _La Riuiere die Fouez.--Brief Récit_, par Jacques Cartier,
      D'Avezac ed. p. 28. _Vide Relations des Jésuites_, 1635, p. 13.
 164. An eastern branch of the St Maurice River rises in a small lake, from
      which Lake St. John, which is an affluent of the Saguenay, may be
      reached by a land portage of not more than five or six leagues.
 On the Saturday following, we set out from the Trois Rivières, and came to
 anchor at a lake four leagues distant. All this region from the Trois
 Rivières to the entrance to the lake is low and on a level with the water,
 though somewhat higher on the south side. The land is very good and the
 pleasantest yet seen by us. The woods are very open, so that one could
 easily make his way through them.
 The next day, the 29th of June, [165] we entered the lake, which is some
 fifteen leagues long and seven or eight wide. [166] About a league from its
 entrance, and on the south side, is a river [167] of considerable size and
 extending into the interior some sixty or eighty leagues. Farther on, on
 the same side, there is another small river, extending about two leagues
 inland, and, far in, another little lake, which has a length of perhaps
 three or four leagues. [168] On the northern shore, where the land appears
 very high, you can see for some twenty leagues; but the mountains grow
 gradually smaller towards the west, which has the appearance of being a
 flat region. The savages say that on these mountains the land is for the
 most part poor. The lake above mentioned is some three fathoms deep where
 we passed, which was nearly in the middle. Its longitudinal direction is
 from east to west, and its lateral one from north to south. I think that it
 must contain good fish, and such varieties as we have at home. We passed
 through it this day, and came to anchor about two leagues up the river,
 which extends its course farther on, at the entrance to which there are
 thirty little islands. [169] From what I could observe, some are two
 leagues in extent, others a league and a half, and some less. They contain
 numerous nut-trees, which are but little different from our own, and, as I
 am inclined to think, the nuts are good in their season. I saw a great many
 of them under the trees, which were of two kinds, some small, and others an
 inch long; but they were decayed. There are also a great many vines on the
 shores of these islands, most of which, however, when the waters are high,
 are submerged. The country here is superior to any I have yet seen.
 The last day of June, we set out from here and went to the entrance of the
 River of the Iroquois, [170] where the savages were encamped and fortified
 who were on their way to make war with the former. [171] Their fortress is
 made of a large number of stakes closely pressed against each other. It
 borders on one side on the shore of the great river, on the other on that
 of the River of the Iroquois. Their canoes are drawn up by the side of each
 other on the shore, so that they may be able to flee quickly in case of a
 surprise from the Iroquois; for their fortress is covered with oak bark,
 and serves only to give them time to take to their boats.
 We went up the River of the Iroquois some five or six leagues, but, because
 of the strong current, could not proceed farther in our barque, which we
 were also unable to drag overland, on account of the large number of trees
 on the shore. Finding that we could not proceed farther, we took our skiff
 to see if the current were less strong above; but, on advancing some two
 leagues, we found it still stronger, and were unable to go any farther.
 [172] As we could do nothing else, we returned in our barque. This entire
 river is some three to four hundred paces broad, and very unobstructed. We
 saw there five islands, distant from each other a quarter or half a league,
 or at most a league, one of which, the nearest, is a league long, the
 others being very small. All this country is heavily wooded and low, like
 that which I had before seen; but there are more firs and cypresses than in
 other places. The soil is good, although a little sandy. The direction of
 this river is about southwest. [173]
 The savages say that some fifteen leagues from where we had been there is a
 fall [174] of great length, around which they carry their canoes about a
 quarter of a league, when they enter a lake, at the entrance to which there
 are three islands, with others farther in. It may be some forty or fifty
 leagues long and some twenty-five wide, into which as many as ten rivers
 flow, up which canoes can go for a considerable distance. [175] Then, at
 the other end of this lake, there is another fall, when another lake is
 entered, of the same size as the former, [176] at the extremity of which
 the Iroquois are encamped. They say also that there is a river [177]
 extending to the coast of Florida, a distance of perhaps some hundred or
 hundred and forty leagues from the latter lake. All the country of the
 Iroquois is somewhat mountainous, but has a very good soil, the climate
 being moderate, without much winter.
 165. They entered the lake on St. Peter's day, the 29th of June, and, for
      this reason doubtless, it was subsequently named Lake St. Peter, which
      name it still retains. It was at first called Lake Angouleme--_Vide_
      marginal note in Hakluyt. Vol. III. p. 271. Laverdière cites Thévet to
      the same effect.
 166. From the point at which the river flows into the lake to its exit, the
      distance is about twenty-seven miles and its width about seven miles.
      Champlain's distances, founded upon rough estimates made on a first
      voyage of difficult navigation, are exceedingly inaccurate, and,
      independent of other data, cannot be relied upon for the
      identification of localities.
 167. The author appears to have confused the relative situations of the two
      rivers here mentioned. The smaller one should, we think, have been
      mentioned first. The larger one was plainly the St Francis, and the
      smaller one the Nicolette.
 168. This would seem to be the _Baie la Vallure_, at the southwestern
      extremity of Lake St. Peter.
 169. The author here refers to the islands at the western extremity of Lake
      St. Peter, which are very numerous. On Charlevoix's Carte de la
      Rivière de Richelieu they are called _Isles de Richelieu_. The more
      prominent are Monk Island, Isle de Grace, Bear Island. Isle St Ignace,
      and Isle du Pas. Champlain refers to these islands again in 1609, with
      perhaps a fuller description--_Vide_ Vol. II. p. 206.
 170. The Richelieu, flowing from Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence. For
      description of this river, see Vol. II. p. 210, note 337. In 1535 the
      Indians at Montreal pointed out this river as leading to Florida.--
      _Vide Brief Récit_, par Jacques Cartier, 1545, D'Avezac ed.
 171. The Hurons, Algonquins, and Montagnais were at war with the Iroquois,
      and the savages assembled here were composed of some or all of these
 172. The rapids in the river here were too strong for the French barque, or
      even the skiff, but were not difficult to pass with the Indian canoe,
      as was fully proved in 1609.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p. 207 of this work.
 173. The course of the Richelieu is nearly from the south to the north.
 174. The rapids of Chambly.
 175. Lake Champlain, discovered by him in 1609.--_Vide_ Vol. II. ch. ix.
 176. Lake George. Champlain either did not comprehend his Indian
      informants, or they greatly exaggerated the comparative size of this
 177. The Hudson River--_Vide_ Vol. II. p. 218, note 347.
 Setting out from the River of the Iroquois, we came to anchor three leagues
 from there, on the northern shore. All this country is low, and filled with
 the various kinds of trees which I have before mentioned.
 On the first day of July we coasted along the northern shore, where the
 woods are very open; more so than in any place we had before seen. The soil
 is also everywhere favorable for cultivation.
 I went in a canoe to the southern shore, where I saw a large number of
 islands, [178] which abound in fruits, such as grapes, walnuts, hazel-nuts,
 a kind of fruit resembling chestnuts, and cherries; also in oaks, aspens,
 poplar, hops, ash, maple, beech, cypress, with but few pines and firs.
 There were, moreover, other fine-looking trees, with which I am not
 acquainted. There are also a great many strawberries, raspberries, and
 currants, red, green, and blue, together with numerous small fruits which
 grow in thick grass. There are also many wild beasts, such as orignacs,
 stags, hinds, does, bucks, bears, porcupines, hares, foxes, bearers,
 otters, musk-rats, and some other kinds of animals with which I am not
 acquainted, which are good to eat, and on which the savages subsist. [179]
 We passed an island having a very pleasant appearance, some four leagues
 long and about half a league wide. [180] I saw on the southern shore two
 high mountains, which appeared to be some twenty leagues in the interior.
 [181] The savages told me that this was the first fall of the River of the
 On Wednesday following, we set out from this place, and made some five or
 six leagues. We saw numerous islands; the land on them was low, and they
 were covered with trees like those of the River of the Iroquois. On the
 following day we advanced some few leagues, and passed by a great number of
 islands, beautiful on account of the many meadows, which are likewise to be
 seen on the mainland as well as on the islands. [182] The trees here are
 all very small in comparison with those we had already passed.
 We arrived finally, on the same day, having a fair wind, at the entrance to
 the fall. We came to an island almost in the middle of this entrance, which
 is a quarter of a league long. [183] We passed to the south of it, where
 there were from three to five feet of water only, with a fathom or two in
 some places, after which we found suddenly only three or four feet. There
 are many rocks and little islands without any wood at all, and on a level
 with the water. From the lower extremity of the above-mentioned island in
 the middle of the entrance, the water begins to come with great force.
 Although we had a very favorable wind, yet we could not, in spite of all
 our efforts, advance much. Still, we passed this island at the entrance of
 the fall. Finding that we could not proceed, we came to anchor on the
 northern shore, opposite a little island, which abounds in most of the
 fruits before mentioned. [184] We at once got our skiff ready, which had
 been expressly made for passing this fall, and Sieur Du Pont Gravé and
 myself embarked in it, together with some savages whom we had brought to
 show us the way. After leaving our barque, we had not gone three hundred
 feet before we had to get out, when some sailors got into the water and
 dragged our skiff over. The canoe of the savages went over easily. We
 encountered a great number of little rocks on a level with the water, which
 we frequently struck.
 There are here two large islands; one on the northern side, some fifteen
 leagues long and almost as broad, begins in the River of Canada, some
 twelve leagues towards the River of the Iroquois, and terminates beyond the
 fall. [185] The island on the south shore is some four leagues long and
 half a league wide. [186] There is, besides, another island near that on
 the north, which is perhaps half a league long and a quarter wide. [187]
 There is still another small island between that on the north and the other
 farther south, where we passed the entrance to the fall. [188] This being
 passed, there is a kind of lake, in which are all these islands, and which
 is some five leagues long and almost as wide, and which contains a large
 number of little islands or rocks. Near the fall there is a mountain, [189]
 visible at a considerable distance, also a small river coming from this
 mountain and falling into the lake. [190] On the south, some three or four
 mountains are seen, which seem to be fifteen or sixteen leagues off in the
 interior. There are also two rivers; the one [191] reaching to the first
 lake of the River of the Iroquois, along which the Algonquins sometimes go
 to make war upon them, the other near the fall and extending some feet
 inland. [192]
 On approaching this fall [193] with our little skiff and the canoe, I saw,
 to my astonishment, a torrent of water descending with an impetuosity such
 as I have never before witnessed, although it is not very high, there being
 in some places only a fathom or two, and at most but three. It descends as
 if by steps, and at each descent there is a remarkable boiling, owing to
 the force and swiftness with which the water traverses the fall, which is
 about a league in length. There are many rocks on all sides, while near the
 middle there are some very narrow and long islands. There are rapids not
 only by the side of those islands on the south shore, but also by those on
 the north, and they are so dangerous that it is beyond the power of man to
 pass through with a boat, however small. We went by land through the woods
 a distance of a league, for the purpose of seeing the end of the falls,
 where there are no more rocks or rapids; but the water here is so swift
 that it could not be more so, and this current continues three or four
 leagues; so that it is impossible to imagine one's being able to go by
 boats through these falls. But any one desiring to pass them, should
 provide himself with the canoe of the savages, which a man can easily
 carry. For to make a portage by boat could not be done in a sufficiently
 brief time to enable one to return to France, if he desired to winter
 there. Besides this first fall, there are ten others, for the most part
 hard to pass; so that it would be a matter of great difficulty and labor to
 see and do by boat what one might propose to himself, except at great cost,
 and the risk of working in vain. But in the canoes of the savages one can
 go without restraint, and quickly, everywhere, in the small as well as
 large rivers. So that, by using canoes as the savages do, it would be
 possible to see all there is, good and bad, in a year or two.
 The territory on the side of the fall where we went overland consists, so
 far as we saw it, of very open woods, where one can go with his armor
 without much difficulty. The air is milder and the soil better than in any
 place I have before seen. There are extensive woods and numerous fruits, as
 in all the places before mentioned. It is in latitude 45 deg. and some
 Finding that we could not advance farther, we returned to our barque, where
 we asked our savages in regard to the continuation of the river, which I
 directed them to indicate with their hands; so, also, in what direction its
 source was. They told us that, after passing the first fall, [194] which we
 had seen, they go up the river some ten or fifteen leagues with their
 canoes, [195] extending to the region of the Algonquins, some sixty leagues
 distant from the great river, and that they then pass five falls,
 extending, perhaps, eight leagues from the first to the last, there being
 two where they are obliged to carry their canoes. [196] The extent of each
 fall may be an eighth of a league, or a quarter at most. After this, they
 enter a lake, [197] perhaps some fifteen or sixteen leagues long. Beyond
 this they enter a river a league broad, and in which they go several
 leagues. [198] Then they enter another lake some four or five leagues long.
 [199] After reaching the end of this, they pass five other falls, [200] the
 distance from the first to the last being about twenty-five or thirty
 leagues. Three of these they pass by carrying their canoes, and the other
 two by dragging them in the water, the current not being so strong nor bad
 as in the case of the others. Of all these falls, none is so difficult to
 pass as the one we saw. Then they come to a lake some eighty leagues long,
 [201] with a great many islands; the water at its extremity being fresh and
 the winter mild. At the end of this lake they pass a fall, [202] somewhat
 high and with but little water flowing over. Here they carry their canoes
 overland about a quarter of a league, in order to pass the fall, afterwards
 entering another lake [203] some sixty leagues long, and containing very
 good water. Having reached the end, they come to a strait [204] two leagues
 broad and extending a considerable distance into the interior. They said
 they had never gone any farther, nor seen the end of a lake [205] some
 fifteen or sixteen leagues distant from where they had been, and that those
 relating this to them had not seen any one who had seen it; that since it
 was so large, they would not venture out upon it, for fear of being
 surprised by a tempest or gale. They say that in summer the sun sets north
 of this lake, and in winter about the middle; that the water there is very
 bad, like that of this sea. [206]
 I asked them whether from this last lake, which they had seen, the water
 descended continuously in the river extending to Gaspé. They said no; that
 it was from the third lake only that the water came to Gaspé, but that
 beyond the last fall, which is of considerable extent, as I have said, the
 water was almost still, and that this lake might take its course by other
 rivers extending inland either to the north or south, of which there are a
 large number there, and of which they do not see the end. Now, in my
 judgment, if so many rivers flow into this lake, it must of necessity be
 that, having so small a discharge at this fall, it should flow off into
 some very large river. But what leads me to believe that there is no river
 through which this lake flows, as would be expected, in view of the large
 number of rivers that flow into it, is the fact that the savages have not
 seen any river taking its course into the interior, except at the place
 where they have been. This leads me to believe that it is the south sea
 which is salt, as they say. But one is not to attach credit to this opinion
 without more complete evidence than the little adduced.
 This is all that I have actually seen respecting this matter, or heard from
 the savages in response to our interrogatories.
 178. Isle Plat, and at least ten other islets along the share before
      reaching the Verchères.--_Vide_ Laurie's Chart.
 179. The reader will observe that the catalogue of fruits, trees, and
      animals mentioned above, include, only such as are important in
      commerce. They are, we think, without an exception, of American
      species, and, consequently, the names given by Champlain are not
      accurately descriptive. We notice them in order, and in italics give
      the name assigned by Champlain in the text.
      Grapes. _Vignes_, probably the frost grape. _Vitis
      cordifolia_.--Pickering's _Chronological History of Plants_ p. 875.
      Walnuts. _Noir_, this name is given in France to what is known in
      commerce as the English or European walnut, _Juglans rigia_, a Persian
      fruit now cultivated in most countries in Europe. For want of a
      better, Champlain used this name to signify probably the butternut,
      _Juglans cinerea_, and five varieties of the hickory; the shag-bark.
      _Carya alba_, the mocker-nut, _Carya tontentofa_, the small-fruited
      _Carya microcarpa_, the pig-nut, _Carya glatra_, bitter-nut. _Carya
      amara_, all of which are exclusively American fruits, and are still
      found in the valley of the St Lawrence.--_MS. Letter of J. M. Le
      Maine_, of Quebec; Jeffrie's _Natural History of French Dominions in
      America_, London. 1760, p.41.
      Hazel-nuts, _noysettes_. The American filbert or hazel-nut, _Corylus
      Americana_. The flavor is fine, but the fruit is smaller and the shell
      thicker than that of the European filbert.
      "Kind of fruit resembling chestnuts." This was probably the chestnut,
      _Caftanea Americana_. The fruit much resembles the European, but is
      smaller and sweeter.
      Cherries, _cerises_. Three kinds may here be included, the wild red
      cherry, _Prunus Pennsylvanica_, the choke cherry. _Prunus Virginiana_,
      and the wild black cherry, _Prunus serotina_.
      Oaks, _chesnes_. Probably the more noticeable varieties, as the white
      oak, _Quercus alba_, and red oak, Quercus _rubra_.
      Aspens, _trembles_. The American aspen, _Populus tremuloides_.
      Poplar, _pible_. For _piboule_, as suggested by Laverdière. a variety
      of poplar.
      Hops, _houblon_. _Humulus lupulus_, found in northern climates,
      differing from the hop of commerce, which was imported from Europe.
      Ash. _fresne_. The white ash, _Fraxinus Americana_, and black ash,
      _Fraxinus sambucifolia_.
      Maple, _érable_. The tree here observed was probably the rock or sugar
      maple, _Acer faccharinum_. Several other species belong to this
      Beech, _hestre_. The American beech, _Fagus ferruginea_, of which
      there is but one species.--_Vide_, Vol. II. p. 113, note 205.
      Cypress, _cyprez_.--_Vide antea_ note 35.
      Strawberry, _fraises_. The wild strawberry, _Fragaria vesca_, and
      _Fragaria Virginiana_, both species, are found in this region.--_Vide_
      Pickering's _Chronological History of Plants_, p. 873.
      Raspberries _framboises_. The American raspberry, _Rubis strigosus_.
      Currants, red, green, and blue, _groizelles rouges, vertes and
      bleues_. The first mentioned is undoubtedly the red currant of our
      gardens. _Ribes rubrum_. The second may have been the unripe fruit of
      the former. The third doubtless the black currant, _Ribes nigrum_,
      which grows throughout Canada.--_Vide Chronological History of
      Plants_, Pickering. p. 871; also Vol. II. note 138.
      _Orignas_, so written in the original text. This is, I think, the
      earliest mention of this animal under this Algonquin name. It was
      written, by the French, sometimes _orignac, orignat_, and
      _orignal_.--_Vide Jesuit Relations_, 1635, p. 16; 1636, p. 11, _et
      passim_; Sagard, _Hist. du Canada_, 1636, p. 749; _Description de
      l'Amerique_, par Denys. 1672, p. 27. _Orignac_ was used
      interchangeably with _élan_, the name of the elk of northern Europe,
      regarded by some as the same spccies.--_Vide Mammals_, by Spenser F.
      Baird. But the _orignac_ of Champlain was the moose. _Alce
      Americanus_, peculiar to the northern latitudes of America. Moose is
      derived from the Indian word _moosoa_. This animal is the largest of
      the _Cervus_ family. The males are said to attain the weight of eleven
      or twelve hundred pounds. Its horns sometimes weigh fifty or sixty
      pounds. It is exceedingly shy and difficult to capture.
      Stags, _cerfs_. This is undoubtedly a reference to the caribou,
      _Cervus tarandus_. Sagard (1636) calls it _Caribou ou asne Sauuages_,
      caribou or wilde ass.--_Hist. du Canada_, p. 750. La Hontan, 1686,
      says harts and caribous are killed both in summer and winter after the
      same manner with the elks (mooses), excepting that the caribous, which
      are a kind of wild asses, make an easy escape when the snow is hard by
      virtue of their broad feet (Voyages, p. 59). There are two varieties,
      the _Cervus tarandus arcticus_ and the _Cervus tarandus sylvestris_.
      The latter is that here referred to and the larger and finer animal,
      and is still found in the forests of Canada.
      Hinds, _biches_, the female of _cerfs_, and does, _dains_, the female
      of _daim_, the fallow deer. These may refer to the females of the two
      preceding species, or to additional species as the common red deer,
      _Cervus Virginianus_, and some other species or variety. La Hontan in
      the passage cited above speaks of three, the _elk_ which we have shown
      to be the moose, the well-known _caribou_, and the _hart_, which was
      undoubtedly the common red deer of this region, _Cervus Virginianus_.
      I learn from Mr. J. M. LeMoine of Quebec, that the Wapiti, _Elaphus
      Canadensis_ was found in the valley of the St. Lawrence a hundred and
      forty years ago, several horns and bones having been dug up in the
      forest, especially in the Ottawa district. It is now extinct here, but
      is still found in the neighborhood of Lake Winnipeg and further west.
      Cartier, in 1535, speaks of _dains_ and _cerfs_, doubtless referring
      to different species.--_Vide Brief Récit_, D'Avezac ed. p. 31 _verso_.
      Bears. _ours_. The American black bear, _Ursus Americanus_. The grisly
      bear. _Ursus ferox_, was found on the Island of Anticosti.--_Vide
      Hist. du Canada_, par Sagard, 1636, pp. 148, 750. _La Hontan's
      Voyages_. 1687, p. 66.
      Porcupines. _porcs-espics_. The Canada porcupine, _Hystrix pilosus_. A
      nocturnal rodent quadruped, armed with barbed quills, his chief
      defence when attacked by other animals.
      Hares, _lapins_. The American hare, _Lepus Americanus_.
      Foxes, _reynards_. Of the fox. _Canis vulpes_, there are several
      species in Canada. The most common is of a carroty red color, _Vulpes
      fulvus_. The American cross fox. _Canis decussatus_, and the black or
      silver fox. _Canis argentatus_, are varieties that may have been found
      there at that period, but are now rarely if ever seen.
      Beavers, _castors_. The American beaver, _Castor Americanus_. The fur
      of the beaver was of all others the most important in the commerce of
      New France.
      Otters, _loutres_. This has reference only to the river otter, _Lutra
      Canadensis_. The sea otter, _Lutra marina_, is only found in America
      on the north-west Pacific coast.
      Muskrat, _rats musquets_. The musk-rat, _Fiber zibethecus_, sometimes
      called musquash from the Algonquin word, _m8sk8éss8_, is found in
      three varieties, the black, and rarely the pied and white. For a
      description of this animal _vide Le Jeune, Jesuit Relations_, 1635,
      pp. 18, 19.
 180. The Verchères.
 181. Summits of the Green Mountains.
 182. From the Verchères to Montreal, the St. Lawrence is full of islands,
      among them St. Thérèse and nameless others.
 183. This was the Island of St Hélène, a favorite name given to several
      other places. He subsequently called it St Hélène, probably from
      Hélène Boullé, his wife. Between it and the mainland on the north
      flows the _Rapide de Ste. Marie.--Vide Lauru's Chart_.
 184. This landing was on the present site of the city of Montreal, and the
      little island, according to Laverdière, is now joined to the mainland
      by quays.
 185. The island of Montreal, here referred to, not including the isle
      Jésus, is about thirty miles long and nine miles in its greatest
 186. The Isle Perrot is about seven or eight miles long and about three
      miles wide.
 187. Island of St Paul, sometimes called Nuns' Island.
 188. Round Island, situated just below St. Hélène's, on the east, say about
      fifty yards distant.
 189. The mountain in the rear of the city of Montreal, 700 feet in height,
      discovered in October, 1535. by Jacques Cartier, to which he gave the
      name after which the city is called. "Nous nomasmes la dicte montaigne
      le mont Royal."--_Brief Récit_, 1545, D'Avezac's ed. p. 23. When
      Cartier made his visit to this place in 1535, he found on or near the
      site of the present city of Montreal the famous Indian town called
      _Hochelaga_. Champlain does not speak of it in the text, and it had of
      course entirely disappeared.--_Vide_ Cartier's description in _Brief
      Récit_, above cited.
 190. Rivière St Pierre. This little river is formed by two small streams
      flowing one from the north and the other from the south side of the
      mountain. Bellin and Charlevoix denominate it _La Petite Rivière_.
      These small streams do not appear on modern maps, and have probably
      now entirely disappeared.--_Vide Charlevoix's Carte de l'Isle de
      Montreal; Atlas Maritime_, par Sieur Bellin; likewise _Atlas of the
      Dominion of Canada_, 1875.
 191. The River St. Lambert, according to Laverdière, a small stream from
      which by a short portage the Indian with his canoe could easily reach
      Little River, which flows into the basin of Chambly, the lake referred
      to by Champlain. This was the route of the Algonquins, at least on
      their return from their raids upon the Iroquois.--_Vide_ Vol. II. p.
 192. Laverdière supposes this insignificant stream to be La Rivière de la
 193. The Falls of St. Louis, or the Lachine rapids.
 194. Lachine Rapids.
 195. Passing through Lake St. Louis, they come to the River Ottawa,
      sometimes called the River of the Algonquins.
 196. The Cascades, Cèdres and Rapids du Coteau du Lac with subdivisions.
      _Laverdière_. La Hontan mentions four rapids between Lake St. Louis
      and St Francis, as _Cascades, Le Cataracte du Trou, Sauts des Cedres_,
      and _du Buisson_.
 197. Lake St. Francis, about twenty-five miles long.
 198. Long Saut.
 199. Hardly a lake but rather the river uninterrupted by falls or rapids.
 200. The smaller rapids, the Galops, Point Cardinal, and others.--_Vide_
      La Hontan's description of his passage up this river, _New Voyages to
      N. America_, London, 1735. Vol. I. p. 30.
 201. Lake Ontario. It is one hundred and eighty miles long.--_Garneau_.
 202. Niagara Falls. Champlain does not appear to have obtained from the
      Indians any adequate idea of the grandeur and magnificence of this
      fall. The expression, _qui est quelque peu éleué, où il y a peu d'eau,
      laquelle descend_, would imply that it was of moderate if not of an
      inferior character. This may have arisen from the want of a suitable
      medium of communication, but it is more likely that the intensely
      practical nature of the Indian did not enable him to appreciate or
      even observe the beauties by which he was surrounded. The immense
      volume of water and the perpendicular fall of 160 feet render it
      unsurpassed in grandeur by any other cataract in the world. Although
      Champlain appears never to have seen this fall, he had evidently
      obtained a more accurate description of it before 1629.--_Vide_ note
      No. 90 to map in ed. 1632.
 203. Lake Erie, 250 miles long.--_Garneau_.
 204. Detroit river, or the strait which connects Lake Erie and Lake St.
      Clair.--_Atlas of the Dominion of Canada_.
 205. Lake Huron, denominated on early maps _Mer Douce_, the sweet sea of
      which the knowledge of the Indian guides was very imperfect.
 206. The Indians with whom Champlain came in contact on this hasty visit in
      1603 appear to have had some notion of a salt sea, or as they say
      water that is very bad like the sea, lying in an indefinite region,
      which neither they nor their friends had ever visited. The salt sea to
      which they occasionally referred was probably Hudson's Bay, of which
      some knowledge may have been transmitted from the tribes dwelling near
      it to others more remote, and thus passing from tribe to tribe till it
      reached, in rather an indefinite shape, those dwelling on the St.
 We set out from the fall on Friday, the fourth of June, [207] and returned
 the same day to the river of the Iroquois. On Sunday, the sixth of June, we
 set out from here, and came to anchor at the lake. On Monday following, we
 came to anchor at the Trois Rivières. The same day, we made some four
 leagues beyond the Trois Rivières. The following Tuesday we reached Quebec,
 and the next day the end of the island of Orleans, where the Indians, who
 were encamped on the mainland to the north, came to us. We questioned two
 or three Algonquins, in order to ascertain whether they would agree with
 those whom we had interrogated in regard to the extent and commencement of
 the River of Canada.
 They said, indicating it by signs, that two or three leagues after passing
 the fall which we had seen, there is, on the northern shore, a river in
 their territory; that, continuing in the said great river, they pass a
 fall, where they carry their canoes; that they then pass five other falls
 comprising, from the first to the last, some nine or ten leagues, and that
 these falls are not hard to pass, as they drag their canoes in the most of
 them, except at two, where they carry them. After that, they enter a river
 which is a sort of lake, comprising some six or seven leagues; and then
 they pass five other falls, where they drag their canoes as before, except
 at two, where they carry them as at the first; and that, from the first to
 the last, there are some twenty or twenty-five leagues. Then they enter a
 lake some hundred and fifty leagues in length, and some four or five
 leagues from the entrance of this lake there is a river [208] extending
 northward to the Algonquins, and another towards the Iroquois, [209] where
 the said Algonquins and the Iroquois make war upon each other. And a little
 farther along, on the south shore of this lake, there is another river,
 [210] extending towards the Iroquois; then, arriving at the end of this
 lake, they come to another fall, where they carry their canoes; beyond
 this, they enter another very large lake, as long, perhaps, as the first.
 The latter they have visited but very little, they said, and have heard
 that, at the end of it, there is a sea of which they have not seen the end,
 nor heard that any one has, but that the water at the point to which they
 have gone is not salt, but that they are not able to judge of the water
 beyond, since they have not advanced any farther; that the course of the
 water is from the west towards the east, and that they do not know whether,
 beyond the lakes they have seen, there is another watercourse towards the
 west; that the sun sets on the right of this lake; that is, in my judgment,
 northwest more or less; and that, at the first lake, the water never
 freezes, which leads me to conclude that the weather there is moderate.
 [211] They said, moreover, that all the territory of the Algonquins is low
 land, containing but little wood; but that on the side of the Iroquois the
 land is mountainous, although very good and productive, and better than in
 any place they had seen. The Iroquois dwell some fifty or sixty leagues
 from this great lake. This is what they told me they had seen, which
 differs but very little from the statement of the former savages.
 On the same day we went about three leagues, nearly to the Isle aux
 Coudres. On Thursday, the tenth of the month, we came within about a league
 and a half of Hare Island, on the north shore, where other Indians came to
 our barque, among whom was a young Algonquin who had travelled a great deal
 in the aforesaid great lake. We questioned him very particularly, as we had
 the other savages. He told us that, some two or three leagues beyond the
 fall we had seen, there is a river extending to the place where the
 Algonquins dwell, and that, proceeding up the great river, there are five
 falls, some eight or nine leagues from the first to the last, past three of
 which they carry their canoes, and in the other two drag them; that each
 one of these falls is, perhaps, a quarter of a league long. Then they enter
 a lake some fifteen leagues in extent, after which they pass five other
 falls, extending from the first to the last some twenty to twenty-five
 leagues, only two of which they pass in their canoes, while at the three
 others they drag them. After this, they enter a very large lake, some three
 hundred leagues in length. Proceeding some hundred leagues in this lake,
 they come to a very large island, beyond which the water is good; but that,
 upon going some hundred leagues farther, the water has become somewhat bad,
 and, upon reaching the end of the lake, it is perfectly salt. That there is
 a fall about a league wide, where a very large mass of water falls into
 said lake; that, when this fall is passed, one sees no more land on either
 side, but only a sea so large that they have never seen the end of it, nor
 heard that any one has; that the sun sets on the right of this lake, at the
 entrance to which there is a river extending towards the Algonquins, and
 another towards the Iroquois, by way of which they go to war; that the
 country of the Iroquois is somewhat mountainous, though very fertile, there
 being there a great amount of Indian corn and other products which they do
 not have in their own country. That the territory of the Algonquins is low
 and fertile.
 I asked them whether they had knowledge of any mines. They told us that
 there was a nation called the good Iroquois, [212] who come to barter for
 the articles of merchandise which the French vessels furnish the
 Algonquins, who say that, towards the north, there is a mine of pure
 copper, some bracelets made from which they showed us, which they had
 obtained from the good Iroquois; [213] that, if we wished to go there, they
 would guide those who might be deputed for this object.
 This is all that I have been able to ascertain from all parties, their
 statements differing but little from each other, except that the second
 ones who were interrogated said that they had never drunk salt water;
 whence it appears that they had not proceeded so far in said lake as the
 others. They differ, also, but little in respect to the distance, some
 making it shorter and others longer; so that, according to their statement,
 the distance from the fall where we had been to the salt sea, which is
 possibly the South Sea, is some four hundred leagues. It is not to be
 doubted, then, according to their statement, that this is none other than
 the South Sea, the sun setting where they say.
 On Friday, the tenth of this month, [214] we returned to Tadoussac, where
 our vessel lay.
 207. As they were at Lake St Peter on the 29th of June, it is plain that
      this should read July.
 208. This river extending north from Lake Ontario is the river-like Bay of
 209. The Oswego River.
 210. The Genesee River, after which they come to Niagara Falls.
 211. We, can easily recognize Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Niagara Falls,
      although this account is exceedingly confused and inaccurate.
 212. Reference is here made to the Hurons who were nearly related to the
      Iroquois. They were called by the French the good Iroquois in
      distinction from the Iroquois in the State of New York, with whom they
      were at war.
 213. A specimen of pure copper was subsequently presented to Champlain.--
      Vol. II. p. 236: _Vide_ a brochure on _Prehistoric Copper Implements_,
      by the editor, reprinted from the New England Historical and
      Genealogical Register for Jan. 1879; also reprinted in the Collections
      of Wis. Hist. Soc., Vol. VIII. 1880.
 214. Friday, July 11th.
 At once, after arriving at Tadoussac, we embarked for Gaspé, about a
 hundred leagues distant. On the thirteenth day of the month, we met a troop
 of savages encamped on the south shore, nearly half way between Tadoussac
 and Gaspé. The name of the Sagamore who led them is Armouchides, who is
 regarded as one of the most intelligent and daring of the savages. He was
 going to Tadoussac to barter their arrows and orignac meat [215] for
 beavers and martens [216] with the Montagnais, Etechemins, and Algonquins.
 On the 15th day of the month we arrived at Gaspé, situated on the northern
 shore of a bay, and about a league and a half from the entrance. This bay
 is some seven or eight leagues long, and four leagues broad at its
 entrance. There is a river there extending some thirty leagues inland.
 [217] Then we saw another bay, called Moluës Bay [218] some three leagues
 long and as many wide at its entrance. Thence we come to Isle Percée, [219]
 a sort of rock, which is very high and steep on two sides, with a hole
 through which shallops and boats can pass at high tide. At low tide, you
 can go from the mainland to this island, which is only some four or five
 hundred feet distant. There is also another island, about a league
 southeast of Isle Percée, called the Island of Bonaventure, which is,
 perhaps, half a league long. Gaspé, Moluës Bay, and Isle Percée are all
 places where dry and green fishing is carried on.
 Beyond Isle Percée there is a bay, called _Baye de Chaleurs_, [220]
 extending some eighty leagues west-southwest inland, and some fifteen
 leagues broad at its entrance. The Canadian savages say that some sixty
 leagues along the southern shore of the great River of Canada, there is a
 little river called Mantanne, extending some eighteen leagues inland, at
 the end of which they carry their canoes about a league by land, and come
 to the Baye de Chaleurs, [221] whence they go sometimes to Isle Percée.
 They also go from this bay to Tregate [222] and Misamichy. [223]
 Proceeding along this coast, you pass a large number of rivers, and reach a
 place where there is one called _Souricoua_, by way of which Sieur Prevert
 went to explore a copper mine. They go with their canoes up this river for
 two or three days, when they go overland some two or three leagues to the
 said mine, which is situated on the seashore southward. At the entrance to
 the above-mentioned river there is an island [224] about a league out, from
 which island to Isle Percée is a distance of some sixty or seventy leagues.
 Then, continuing along this coast, which runs towards the east, you come to
 a strait about two leagues broad and twenty-five long. [225] On the east
 side of it is an island named _St. Lawrence_, [226] on which is Cape
 Breton, and where a tribe of savages called the _Souriquois_ winter.
 Passing the strait of the Island of St. Lawrence, and coasting along the
 shore of La Cadie, you come to a bay [227] on which this copper mine is
 situated. Advancing still farther, you find a river [228] extending some
 sixty or eighty leagues inland, and nearly to the Lake of the Iroquois,
 along which the savages of the coast of La Cadie go to make war upon the
 One would accomplish a great good by discovering, on the coast of Florida,
 some passage running near to the great lake before referred to, where the
 water is salt; not only on account of the navigation of vessels, which
 would not then be exposed to so great risks as in going by way of Canada,
 but also on account of the shortening of the distance by more than three
 hundred leagues. And it is certain that there are rivers on the coast of
 Florida, not yet discovered, extending into the interior, where the land is
 very good and fertile, and containing very good harbors. The country and
 coast of Florida may have a different temperature and be more productive in
 fruits and other things than that which I have seen; but there cannot be
 there any lands more level nor of a better quality than those we have seen.
 The savages say that, in this great Baye de Chaleurs, there is a river
 extending some twenty leagues into the interior, at the extremity of which
 is a lake [229] some twenty leagues in extent, but with very little water;
 that it dries up in summer, when they find in it, a foot or foot and a half
 under ground, a kind of metal resembling the silver which I showed them,
 and that in another place, near this lake, there is a copper mine.
 This is what I learned from these savages.
 215. _Orignac_. Moose.--_Vide antea_, note 179.
 216. Martens, _martres_. This may include the pine-marten, _Mustela
      martes_, and the pecan or fisher, _Mustela Canadenfis_, both of which
      were found in large numbers in New France.
 217. York River.
 218. Molues Bay, _Baye des Moluès_. Now known as Mal-Bay, from _morue_,
      codfish, a corruption from the old orthography _molue_ and _baie_,
      codfish bay, the name having been originally applied on account of the
      excellent fish of the neighborhood. The harbor of Mal-Bay is enclosed
      between two points, Point Peter on the north, and a high rocky
      promontory on the south, whose cliffs rise to the height of 666
      feet.--_Vide Charts of the St. Lawrence by Captain H. W. Bayfield_.
 219. _Isle Percée.--Vide_ Vol. II, note 290.
 220. _Baye de Chaleurs_. This bay was so named by Jacques Cartier on
      account of the excessive heat, _chaleur_, experienced there on his
      first voyage in 1634.--_Vide Voyage de Jacques Cartier_, Mechelant,
      ed. Paris, 1865, p. 50. The depth of the bay is about ninety miles and
      its width at the entrance is about eighteen. It receives the
      Ristigouche and other rivers.
 221. By a portage of about three leagues from the river Matane to the
      Matapedia, the Bay of Chaleur may be reached by water.
 222. _Tregaté_, Tracadie. By a very short portage Between Bass River and
      the Big Tracadie River, this place may be reached.
 223. _Misamichy_, Miramichi. This is reached by a short portage from the
      Nepisiguit to the head waters of the Miramichi.
 224. It is obvious from this description that the island above mentioned is
      Shediac Island, and the river was one of the several emptying into
      Shediac Bay, and named _Souricoua_, as by it the Indians went to the
      Souriquois or Micmacs in Nova Scotia.
 225. The Strait of Canseau.
 226. _St. Lawrence_. This island had then borne the name of the _Island of
      Cape Breton_ for a hundred years.
 227. The Bay of Fundy.
 228. The River St John by which they reached the St Lawrence, and through
      the River Richelieu the lake of the Iroquois. It was named Lake
      Champlain in 1609. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 223.
 229. By traversing the Ristigouche River, the Matapediac may be reached,
      the lake here designated.
 We set out from Isle Percée on the nineteenth of the month, on our return
 to Tadoussac. When we were some three leagues from Cape Évêque [230]
 encountered a tempest, which lasted two days, and obliged us to put into a
 large cove and wait for fair weather. The next day we set out from there
 and again encountered another tempest. Not wishing to put back, and
 thinking that we could make our way, we proceeded to the north shore on the
 28th of July, and came to anchor in a cove which is very dangerous on
 account of its rocky banks. This cove is in latitude 51 deg. and some
 minutes. [231]
 The next day we anchored near a river called St. Margaret, where the depth
 is some three fathoms at full tide, and a fathom and a half at low tide. It
 extends a considerable distance inland. So far as I observed the eastern
 shore inland, there is a waterfall some fifty or sixty fathoms in extent,
 flowing into this river; from this comes the greater part of the water
 composing it. At its mouth there is a sand-bank, where there is, perhaps,
 at low tide, half a fathom of water. All along the eastern shore there is
 moving sand; and here there is a point some half a league from the above
 mentioned river, [232] extending out half a league, and on the western
 shore there is a little island. This place is in latitude 50 deg. All these
 lands are very poor, and covered with firs. The country is somewhat high,
 but not so much so as that on the south side.
 After going some three leagues, we passed another river, [233] apparently
 very large, but the entrance is, for the most part, filled with rocks. Some
 eight leagues distant from there, is a point [234] extending out a league
 and a half, where there is only a fathom and a half of water. Some four
 leagues beyond this point, there is another, where there is water enough.
 [235] All this coast is low and sandy.
 Some four leagues beyond there is a cove into which a river enters. [236]
 This place is capable of containing a large number of vessels on its
 western side. There is a low point extending out about a league. One must
 sail along the eastern side for some three hundred paces in order to enter.
 This is the best harbor along all the northern coast; yet it is very
 dangerous sailing there on account of the shallows and sandbanks along the
 greater part of the coast for nearly two leagues from the shore.
 Some six leagues farther on is a bay, [237] where there is a sandy island.
 This entire bay is very shoal, except on the eastern side, where there are
 some four fathoms of water. In the channel which enters this bay, some four
 leagues from there, is a fine cove, into which a river flows. There is a
 large fall on it. All this coast is low and sandy. Some five leagues
 beyond, is a point extending out about half a league, [238] in which there
 is a cove; and from one point to the other is a distance of three leagues;
 which, however, is only shoals with little water.
 Some two leagues farther on, is a strand with a good harbor and a little
 river, in which there are three islands, [239] and in which vessels could
 take shelter.
 Some three leagues from there, is a sandy point, [240] extending out about
 a league, at the end of which is a little island. Then, going on to the
 Esquemin, [241] you come to two small, low islands and a little rock near
 the shore. These islands are about half a league from the Esquemin, which
 is a very bad harbor, surrounded by rocks and dry at low tide, and, in
 order to enter, one must tack and go in behind a little rocky point, where
 there is room enough for only one vessel. A little farther on, is a river
 extending some little distance into the interior; this is the place where
 the Basques carry on the whale-fishery. [242] To tell the truth, the harbor
 is of no account at all.
 We went thence to the harbor of Tadoussac, on the third of August. All
 these lands above-mentioned along the shore are low, while the interior is
 high. They are not so attractive or fertile as those on the south shore,
 although lower.
 This is precisely what I have seen of this northern shore.
 230. _Évesque_ This cape cannot be identified.
 231. On passing to the northern shore of the St. Lawrence, they entered,
      according to the conjecture of Laverdière, Moisie Bay. It seems to us,
      however, more likely that they entered a cove somewhere among the
      Seven Islands, perhaps near the west channel to the Seven Islands Bay,
      between Point Croix and Point Chassé, where they might have found good
      anchorage and a rocky shore. The true latitude is say, about 50 deg.
      9'. The latitude 51 deg., as given by Champlain, would cut the coast
      of Labrador, and is obviously an error.
 232. This was probably the river still bearing the name of St. Margaret.
      There is a sandy point extending out on the east and a peninsula on
      the western shore, which may then have been an island formed by the
      moving sands.--_Vide Bayfield's charts_.
 233. Rock River, in latitude 50 deg. 2'.
 234. Point De Monts. The Abbé Laverdière, whose opportunities for knowing
      this coast were excellent, states that there is no other point between
      Rock River and Point De Monts of such extent, and where there is so
      little water. As to the distance, Champlain may have been deceived by
      the currents, or there may have been, as suggested by Laverdière, a
      typographical error. The distance to Point De Monts is, in fact,
      eighteen leagues.
 235. Point St Nicholas.--_Laverdière_. This is probably the point referred
      to, although the distance is again three times too great.
 236. The Manicouagan River.--_Laverdière_. The distance is still excessive,
      but in other respects the description in the text identifies this
      river. On Bellin's map this river is called Rivière Noire.
 237. Outard Bay. The island does not now appear. It was probably an island
      of sand, which has since been swept away, unless it was the sandy
      peninsula lying between Outard and Manicouagan Rivers. The fall is
      laid down on Bayfield's chart.
 238. Bersimis Point Walker and Miles have _Betsiamites_, Bellin,
      _Bersiamites_ Laverdière, _Betsiams_, and Bayfield, _Bersemis_. The
      text describes the locality with sufficient accuracy.
 239. Jeremy Island. Bellin, 1764, lays down three islands, but Bayfield,
      1834, has but one. Two of them appear to have been swept away or
      united in one.
 240. Three leagues would indicate Point Colombier. But Laverdière suggests
      Mille Vaches as better conforming to the description in the text,
      although the distance is three times too great.
 241. _Esquemin_. Walker and Miles have _Esconmain_, Bellin, _Lesquemin_,
      Bayfield, _Esquamine_, and Laverdière, _Escoumins_. The river half a
      league distant is now called River Romaine.
 242. The River Lessumen, a short distance from which is _Anse aux Basques_,
      or Basque Cove. This is probably the locality referred to in the text.
 Upon arriving at Tadoussac, we found the savages, whom we had met at the
 River of the Iroquois, and who had had an encounter at the first lake with
 three Iroquois canoes, there being ten of the Montagnais. The latter
 brought back the heads of the Iroquois to Tadoussac, there being only one
 Montagnais wounded, which was in the arm by an arrow; and in case he should
 have a dream, it would be necessary for all the ten others to execute it in
 order to satisfy him, they thinking, moreover, that his wound would thereby
 do better. If this savage should die, his relatives would avenge his death
 either on his own tribe or others, or it would be necessary for the
 captains to make presents to the relatives of the deceased, in order to
 content them, otherwise, as I have said, they would practise vengeance,
 which is a great evil among them.
 Before these Montagnais set out for the war, they all gathered together in
 their richest fur garments of beaver and other skins, adorned with beads
 and belts of various colors. They assembled in a large public place, in the
 presence of a sagamore named Begourat, who led them to the war. They were
 arranged one behind the other, with their bows and arrows, clubs, and round
 shields with which they provide for fighting. They went leaping one after
 the other, making various gestures with their bodies, and many snail-like
 turns. Afterwards they proceeded to dance in the customary manner, as I
 have before described; then they had their _tabagie_, after which the women
 stripped themselves stark naked, adorned with their handsomest
 _matachiats_. Thus naked and dancing, they entered their canoes, when they
 put out upon the water, striking each other with their oars, and throwing
 quantities of water at one another. But they did themselves no harm, since
 they parried the blows hurled at each other. After all these ceremonies,
 the women withdrew to their cabins, and the men went to the war against the
 On the sixteenth of August we set out from Tadoussac, and arrived on the
 eighteenth at Isle Percée, where we found Sieur Prevert of St. Malo, who
 came from the mine where he had gone with much difficulty, from the fear
 which the savages had of meeting their enemies, the Almouchicois, [243] who
 are savages of an exceedingly strange form, for their head is small and
 body short, their arms slender as those of a skeleton, so also the thighs,
 their legs big and long and of uniform size, and when they are seated on
 the ground, their knees extend more than half a foot above the head,
 something strange and seemingly abnormal. They are, however, very agile and
 resolute, and are settled upon the best lands all the coast of La Cadie;
 [244] so that the Souriquois fear them greatly. But with the assurance
 which Sieur de Prevert gave them, he took them to the mine, to which the
 savages guided him. [245] It is a very high mountain, extending somewhat
 seaward, glittering brightly in the sunlight, and containing a large amount
 of verdigris, which proceeds from the before-mentioned copper mine. At the
 foot of this mountain, he said, there was at low water a large quantity of
 bits of copper, such as he showed us, which fall from the top of the
 mountain. Going on three or four leagues in the direction of the coast of
 La Cadie one finds another mine; also a small river extending some distance
 in a Southerly direction, where there is a mountain containing a black
 pigment with which the savages paint themselves. Then, some six leagues
 from the second mine, going seaward about a league, and near the coast of
 La Cadie, you find an island containing a kind of metal of a dark brown
 color, but white when it is cut. This they formerly used for their arrows
 and knives, which they beat into shape with stones, which leads me to
 believe that it is neither tin nor lead, it being so hard; and, upon our
 showing them some silver, they said that the metal of this island was like
 it, which they find some one or two feet under ground. Sieur Prevert gave
 to the savages wedges and chisels and other things necessary to extract the
 ore of this mine, which they promised to do, and on the following year to
 bring and give the same to Sieur Prevert.
 They say, also, that, some hundred or hundred and twenty leagues distant,
 there are other mines, but that they do not dare to go to them, unless
 accompanied by Frenchmen to make war upon their enemies, in whose
 possession the mines are.
 This place where the mine is, which is in latitude 44 deg. and some
 minutes, [246] and some five or six leagues from the coast of La Cadie, is
 a kind of bay some leagues broad at its entrance, and somewhat more in
 length, where there are three rivers which flow into the great bay near the
 island of St John, [247] which is some thirty or thirty-five leagues long
 and some six leagues from the mainland on the south. There is also another
 small river emptying about half way from that by which Sieur Prevert
 returned, in which there are two lake-like bodies of water. There is also
 still another small river, extending in the direction of the pigment
 mountain. All these rivers fall into said bay nearly southeast of the
 island where these savages say this white mine is. On the north side of
 this bay are the copper mines, where there is a good harbor for vessels, at
 the entrance to which is a small island. The bottom is mud and sand, on
 which vessels can be run.
 From this mine to the mouth of the above rivers is a distance of some sixty
 or eighty leagues overland. But the distance to this mine, along the
 seacoast, from the outlet between the Island of St. Lawrence and the
 mainland is, I should think, more than fifty or sixty leagues. [248]
 All this country is very fair and flat, containing all the kinds of trees
 we saw on our way to the first fall of the great river of Canada, with but
 very little fir and cypress.
 This is an exact statement of what I ascertained from Sieur Prevert.
 243. _Almouchiquois_. Champlain here writes _Armouchicois_. The account
      here given to Prevert, by the Souriquois or Micmacs, as they have been
      more recently called, of the Almouchicois or Indians found south of
      Saco, on the coast of Massachusetts, if accurately reported, is far
      from correct. _Vide_ Champlain's description of them, Vol. II. p. 63,
      _et passim_.
 244. _Coast of La Cadie_. This extent given to La Cadie corresponds with
      the charter of De Monts, which covered the territory from 40 deg.
      north latitude to 46 deg. The charter was obtained in the autumn of
      this same year, 1603, and before the account of this voyage by
      Champlain was printed.--_Vide_ Vol. 11. note 155.
 245. Prevert did not make this exploration, personally, although he
      pretended that he did. He sent some of his men with Secondon, the
      chief of St. John, and others. His report is therefore second-hand,
      confused, and inaccurate. Champlain exposes Prevert's attempt to
      deceive in a subsequent reference to him. Compare Vol. II. pp. 26, 97,
 246. _44 deg. and some minutes_. The Basin of Mines, the place where the
      copper was said to be, is about 45 deg. 30'.
 247. _Island of St. John_. Prince Edward Island. It was named the island of
      St. John by Cartier, having been discovered by him on St. John's Day,
      the 24th of June, 1534.--_Vide Voyage de Jacques Cartier_, 1534,
      Michelant, ed. Paris, 1865, p. 33. It continued to be so called for
      the period of _two hundred and sixty-five_ years, when it was changed
      to Prince Edward Island by an act of its legislature, in November,
      1798, which was confirmed by the king in council, Feb. 1, 1799.
 248. That is, from the Strait of Canseau round the coast of Nova Scotia to
      the Bay of Mines.
 There is, moreover, a strange matter, worthy of being related, which
 several savages have assured me was true; namely, near the Bay of Chaleurs,
 towards the south, there is an island where a terrible monster resides,
 which the savages call _Gougou_, and which they told me had the form of a
 woman, though very frightful, and of such a size that they told me the tops
 of the masts of our vessel would not reach to his middle, so great do they
 picture him; and they say that he has often devoured and still continues to
 devour many savages; these he puts, when he can catch them, into a great
 pocket, and afterwards eats them; and those who had escaped the jaws of
 this wretched creature said that its pocket was so great that it could have
 put our vessel into it. This monster makes horrible noises in this island,
 which the savages call the _Gougou_; and when they speak of him, it is with
 the greatest possible fear, and several have assured me that they have seen
 him. Even the above-mentioned Prevert from St. Malo told me that, while
 going in search of mines, as mentioned in the previous chapter, he passed
 so near the dwelling-place of this frightful creature, that he and all
 those on board his vessel heard strange hissings from the noise it made,
 and that the savages with him told him it was the same creature, and that
 they were so afraid that they hid themselves wherever they could, for fear
 that it would come and carry them off. What makes me believe what they say
 is the fact that all the savages in general fear it, and tell such strange
 things about it that, if I were to record all they say, it would be
 regarded as a myth; but I hold that this is the dwelling-place of some
 devil that torments them in the above-mentioned manner. [249] This is what
 I have learned about this Gougou.
 Before leaving Tadoussac on our return to France, one of the sagamores of
 the Montagnais, named _Bechourat_, gave his son to Sieur Du Pont Gravé to
 take to France, to whom he was highly commended by the grand sagamore,
 Anadabijou, who begged him to treat him well and have him see what the
 other two savages, whom we had taken home with us, had seen. We asked them
 for an Iroquois woman they were going to eat, whom they gave us, and whom,
 also, we took with this savage. Sieur de Prevert also took four savages: a
 man from the coast of La Cadie, a woman and two boys from the Canadians.
 On the 24th of August, we set out from Gaspé, the vessel of Sieur Prevert
 and our own. On the 2d of September we calculated that we were as far as
 Cape Race, on the 5th, we came upon the bank where the fishery is carried
 on; on the 16th, we were on soundings, some fifty leagues from Ouessant; on
 the 20th we arrived, by God's grace, to the joy of all, and with a
 continued favorable wind, at the port of Havre de Grâce.
 249. The description of this enchanted island is too indefinite to invite a
      conjecture of its identity or location. The resounding noise of the
      breaking waves, mingled with the whistling of the wind, might well lay
      a foundation for the fears of the Indians, and their excited
      imaginations would easily fill out and complete the picture. In
      Champlain's time, the belief in the active agency of good and evil
      spirits, particularly the latter, in the affairs of men, was
      universal. It culminated in this country in the tragedies of the Salem
      witchcraft in 1692. It has since been gradually subsiding, but
      nevertheless still exists under the mitigated form of spiritual
      communications. Champlain, sharing the credulity of his times, very
      naturally refers these strange phenomena reported by the savages,
      whose statements were fully accredited and corroborated by the
      testimony of his countryman, M. Prevert, to the agency of some evil
      demon, who had taken up his abode in that region in order to vex and
      terrify these unhappy Indians. As a faithful historian, he could not
      omit this story, but it probably made no more impression upon his mind
      than did the thousand others of a similar character with which he must
      have been familiar He makes no allusion to it in the edition of 1613,
      when speaking of the copper mines in that neighborhood, nor yet in
      that of 1632, and it had probably passed from his memory.
 A. _Baye des Isles_. [1]
 B. _Calesme_. [2]
 C. _Baye des Trespasses_.
 D. _Cap de Leuy_. [3]
 E. _Port du Cap de Raye_, where the cod-fishery is carried on.
 F. The north-west coast of Newfoundland, but little known.
 G. Passage to the north at the 52d degree. [4]
 H. _Isle St. Paul_, near Cape St Lawrence
 I. _Isle de Sasinou_, between Monts Déserts and Isles aux Corneilles. [5]
 K. _Isle de Mont-réal_, at the Falls of St. Louis, some eight or nine
 leagues in circuit. [6]
 L. _Riuière Jeannin_. [7]
 M. _Riuière St. Antoine_, [8]
 N. Kind of salt water discharging into the sea, with ebb and flood,
 abundance of fish and shell-fish, and in some places oysters of not very
 good flavor. [9]
 P. _Port aux Coquilles_, an island at the mouth of the River St. Croix,
 with good fishing. [10]
 Q. Islands where there is fishing. [11]
 R. _Lac de Soissons_. [12]
 S. _Baye du Gouffre_. [13]
 T. _Isle de Monts Déserts_, very high.
 V. _Isle S. Barnabe_, in the great river near the Bic.
 X. _Lesquemain_, where there is a small river, abounding in salmon and
 trout, near which is a little rocky islet, where there was formerly a
 station for the whale fishery. [14]
 Y. _La Pointe aux Allouettes_, where, in the month of September, there are
 numberless larks, also other kinds of game and shell-fish.
 Z. _Isle aux Liéures_, so named because some hares were captured there when
 it was first discovered. [15]
 2. _Port à Lesquille_, dry at low tide, where are two brooks coming from
 the mountains. [16]
 3. _Port au Saulmon_, dry at low tide. There are two small islands here,
 abounding, in the season, with strawberries, raspberries, and _bluets_.
 [17] Near this place is a good roadstead for vessels, and two small brooks
 flowing into the harbor.
 4. _Riuière Platte_, coming from the mountains, only navigable for canoes.
 It is dry here at low tide a long distance out. Good anchorage in the
 5. _Isles aux Couldres_, some league and a half long, containing in their
 season great numbers of rabbits, partridges, and other kinds of game. At
 the southwest point are meadows, and reefs seaward. There is anchorage here
 for vessels between this island and the mainland on the north.
 6. _Cap de Tourmente_, a league from which Sieur de Champlain had a
 building erected, which was burned by the English in 1628. Near this place
 is Cap Bruslé, between which and Isle aux Coudres is a channel, with eight,
 ten, and twelve fathoms of water. On the south the shore is muddy and
 rocky. To the north are high lands, &c.
 7. _Isle d'Orléans_, six leagues in length, very beautiful on account of
 its variety of woods, meadows, vines, and nuts. The western point of this
 island is called Cap de Condé.
 8. _Le Sault de Montmorency_, twenty fathoms high, [18] formed by a river
 coming from the mountains, and discharging into the St. Lawrence, a league
 and a half from Quebec.
 9. _Rivière S. Charles_, coming from Lac S. Joseph, [19] very beautiful
 with meadows at low tide. At full tide barques can go up as far as the
 first fall. On this river are built the churches and quarters of the
 reverend Jésuit and Récollect Fathers. Game is abundant here in spring and
 10. _Rivière des Etechemins_, [20] by which the savages go to Quinebequi,
 crossing the country with difficulty, on account of the falls and little
 water. Sieur de Champlain had this exploration made in 1628, and found a
 savage tribe, seven days from Quebec, who till the soil, and are called the
 11. _Rivière de Champlain_, near that of Batisquan, north-west of the
 12. _Rivière de Sauvages_ [21]
 13. _Isle Verte_, five or six leagues from Tadoussac. [22]
 14. _Isle de Chasse_.
 15. _Rivière Batisquan_, very pleasant, and abounding in fish.
 16. _Les Grondines_, and some neighboring islands. A good place for hunting
 and fishing.
 17. _Rivière des Esturgeons & Saulmons_, with a fall of water from fifteen
 to twenty feet high, two leagues from Saincte Croix, which descends into a
 small pond discharging into the great river St. Lawrence. [23]
 18. _Isle de St. Eloy_, with a passage between the island and the mainland
 on the north. [24]
 19. _Lac S. Pierre_, very beautiful, three to four fathoms in depth, and
 abounding in fish, surrounded by hills and level tracts, with meadows in
 places. Several small streams and brooks flow into it.
 20. _Rivière du Gast_, very pleasant, yet containing but little water. [25]
 21. _Rivière Sainct Antoine_. [26]
 22. _Rivière Saincte Suzanne_. [27]
 23. _Rivière des Yrocois_, very beautiful, with many islands and meadows.
 It comes from Lac de Champlain, five or fix days' journey in length,
 abounding in fish and game of different kinds. Vines, nut, plum, and
 chestnut trees abound in many places. There are meadows and very pretty
 islands in it. To reach it, it is necessary to pass one large and one small
 fall. [28]
 24. _Sault de Rivière du Saguenay_, fifty leagues from Tadoussac, ten or
 twelve fathoms high. [29]
 25. _Grand Sault_, which falls some fifteen feet, amid a large number of
 islands. It is half a league in length and three leagues broad. [30]
 26. _Port au Mouton_.
 27. _Baye de Campseau_.
 28. _Cap Baturier_, on the Isle de Sainct Jean.
 29. A river by way of which they go to the Baye Françoise. [31]
 30. _Chasse des Eslans_. [32]
 31. _Cap de Richelieu_, on the eastern part of the Isle d'Orléans. [33]
 32. A small bank near Isle du Cap Breton.
 33. _Rivière des Puans_, coming from a lake where there is a mine of pure
 red copper. [34]
 34. _Sault de Gaston_, nearly two leagues broad, and discharging into the
 Mer Douce. It comes from another very large lake, which, with the Mer
 Douce, have an extent of thirty days' journey by canoe, according to the
 report of the savages. [35]
 _Returning to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Coast of La Cadie_.
 35. _Riuière de Gaspey_. [36]
 36. _Riuière de Chaleu_. [37]
 37. Several Islands near Miscou and the harbor of Miscou, between two
 38. _Cap de l'Isle Sainct Jean_. [38]
 39. _Port au Rossignol_.
 40. _Riuière Platte_. [39]
 41. _Port du Cap Naigré_. On the bay by this cape there is a French
 settlement, where Sieur de la Tour commands, from whom it was named Port la
 Tour. The Reverend Récollect Fathers dwelt here in 1630. [40]
 42. _Baye du Cap de Sable_.
 43. _Baye Saine_. [41]
 44. _Baye Courante_, with many islands abounding in game, good fishing, and
 places favorable for vessels. [42]
 45. _Port du Cap Fourchu_, very pleasant, but very nearly dry at low tide.
 Near this place are many islands, with good hunting.
 47. _Petit Passage de Isle Longue_. Here there is good cod-fishing.
 48. _Cap des Deux Bayes_. [43]
 49. _Port des Mines_, where, at low tide, small pieces of very pure copper
 are to be found in the rocks along the shore. [44]
 50. _Isles de Bacchus_, very pleasant, containing many vines, nut,
 plum, and other trees. [45]
 51. Islands near the mouth of the river Chouacoet.
 52. _Isles Assez Hautes_, three or four in number, two or three leagues
 distant from the land, at the mouth of Baye Longue. [46]
 53. _Baye aux Isles_, with suitable harbors for vessels. The country is
 very good, and settled by numerous savages, who till the land. In these
 localities are numerous cypresses, vines, and nut-trees. [47]
 54. _La Soupçonneuse_, an island nearly a league distant from the land.
 55. _Baye Longue_. [49]
 56. _Les Sept Isles_. [50]
 57. _Riuière des Etechemins_. [51] _The Virginias, where the English are
 settled, between the 36th and 37th degrees of latitude. Captains Ribaut and
 Laudonnière made explorations 36 or 37 years ago along the coasts adjoining
 Florida, and established a settlement_. [52]
 58. Several rivers of the Virginias, flowing into the Gulf.
 59. Coast inhabited by savages who till the soil, which is very good.
 60. _Poincte Confort_. [53]
 61. _Immestan_. [54]
 62. _Chesapeacq Bay_.
 63. _Bedabedec_, the coast west of the river Pemetegoet. [55]
 64. _Belles Prairies_.
 65. Place on Lac Champlain where the Yroquois were defeated by Sieur
 Champlain in 1606. [56]
 66. _Petit Lac_, by way of which they go to the Yroquois, after passing
 over that of Champlain. [57]
 67. _Baye des Trespassez_, on the island of Newfoundland.
 68. _Chappeau Rouge_.
 69. _Baye du Sainct Esprit_.
 70. _Les Vierges_.
 71. _Port Breton_, near Cap Sainct Laurent, on Isle du Cap Breton.
 72. _Les Bergeronnettes_, three leagues from Tadoussac.
 73. _Le Cap d'Espoir_, near Isle Percée. [58]
 74. _Forillon_, at Poincte de Gaspey.
 75. _Isle de Mont-réal_, at the Falls of St. Louis, in the River St.
 Lawrence. [59]
 76. _Riuière des Prairies_, coming from a lake at the Falls of St. Louis,
 where there are two islands, one of which is Montreal For several years
 this has been a station for trading with the savages. [60]
 77. _Sault de la Chaudière_, on the river of the Algonquins, some
 eighteen feet high, and descending among rocks with a great roar. [61]
 78. _Lac de Nibachis_, the name of a savage captain who dwells here and
 tills a little land, where he plants Indian corn. [62]
 79. Eleven lakes, near each other, one, two, and three leagues in extent,
 and abounding in fish and game. Sometimes the savages go this way in order
 to avoid the Fall of the Calumets, which is very dangerous. Some of these
 localities abound in pines, yielding a great amount of resin. [63]
 80. _Sault des Pierres à Calunmet_, which resemble alabaster.
 81. _Isle de Tesouac_, an Algonquin captain (_Tesouac_) to
 whom the savages pay a toll for allowing them passage to Quebec. [64]
 82. _La Riuière de Tesouac_, in which there are five falls. [65]
 83. A river by which many savages go to the North Sea, above the Saguenay,
 and to the Three Rivers, going some distance overland. [66]
 84. The lakes by which they go to the North Sea.
 85. A river extending towards the North Sea.
 86. Country of the Hurons, so called by the French, where there are
 numerous communities, and seventeen villages fortified by three palisades
 of wood, with a gallery all around in the form of a parapet, for defence
 against their enemies. This region is in latitude 44 deg. 30', with a
 fertile soil cultivated by the savages.
 87. Passage of a league overland, where the canoes are carried.
 88. A river discharging into the _Mer Douce_. [67]
 89. Village fortified by four palisades, where Sieur de Champlain went in
 the war against the Antouhonorons, and where several savages were taken
 prisoners. [68]
 90. Falls at the extremity of the Falls of St. Louis, very high, where many
 fish come down and are stunned. [69]
 91. A small river near the Sault de la Chaudière, where there is a
 waterfall nearly twenty fathoms high, over which the water flows in such
 volume and with such velocity that a long arcade is made, beneath which the
 savages go for amusement, without getting wet. It is a fine sight. [70]
 92. This river is very beautiful, with numerous islands of various sizes.
 It passes through many fine lakes, and is bordered by beautiful meadows. It
 abounds in deer and other animals, with fish of excellent quality. There
 are many cleared tracts of land upon it, with good soil, which have been
 abandoned by the savages on account of their wars. It discharges into Lake
 St. Louis, and many tribes come to these regions to hunt and obtain their
 provision for the winter. [71]
 93. Chestnut forest, where there are great quantities of chestnuts, on the
 borders of Lac St Louis. Also many meadows, vines, and nut-trees. [72]
 94. Lake-like bodies of salt water at the head of Baye François, where the
 tide ebbs and flows. Islands containing many birds, many meadows in
 different localities, small rivers flowing into these species of lakes, by
 which they go to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near Isle S. Jean. [73]
 95. _Isle Haute_, a league in circuit, and flat on top. It contains fresh
 water and much wood. It is a league distant from Port aux Mines and Cap des
 Deux Bayes. It is more than forty fathoms high on all sides, except in one
 place, where it slopes, and where there is a pebbly point of a triangular
 shape. In the centre is a pond with salt water. Many birds make their nests
 in this island.
 96. _La Riuière des Algommequins_, extending from the Falls of St Louis
 nearly to the Lake of the Bissereni, containing more than eighty falls,
 large and small, which must be passed by going around, by rowing, or by
 hauling with ropes. Some of these falls are very dangerous, particularly in
 going down. [74]
 _Gens de Petun_. This is a tribe cultivating this herb (_tobacco_), in
 which they carry on an extensive traffic with the other tribes. They have
 large towns, fortified with wood, and they plant Indian corn.
 _Cheveux Releuez_. These are savages who wear nothing about the loins, and
 go stark naked, except in winter, when they clothe themselves in robes of
 skins, which they leave off when they quit their houses for the fields.
 They are great hunters, fishermen, and travellers, till the soil, and plant
 Indian corn. They dry _bluets_ [75] and raspberries, in which they carry on
 an extensive traffic with the other tribes, taking in exchange skins,
 beads, nets, and other articles. Some of these people pierce the nose, and
 attach beads to it They tattoo their bodies, applying black and other
 colors. They wear their hair very straight, and grease it, painting it red,
 as they do also the face.
 _La Nation Neutre_. This is a people that maintains itself against all the
 others. They engage in war only with the Assistaqueronons. They are very
 powerful, having forty towns well peopled.
 _Les Antouhonorons_. They consist of fifteen towns built in strong
 situations. They are enemies of all the other tribes, except Neutral
 nation. Their country is fine, with a good climate, and near the river St.
 Lawrence, the passage of which they forbid to all the other tribes, for
 which reason it is less visited by them. They till the soil, and plant
 their land. [76] _Les Yroquois_. They unite with the Antouhonorons in
 making war against all the other tribes, except the Neutral nation.
 _Carantouanis_. This is a tribe that has moved to the south of the
 Antouhonorons, and dwells in a very fine country, where it is securely
 quartered. They are friends of all the other tribes, except the above named
 Antouhonorons, from whom they are only three days' journey distant. Once
 they took as prisoners some Flemish, but sent them back again without doing
 them any harm, supposing that they were French. Between Lac St. Louis and
 Sault St. Louis, which is the great river St Lawrence, there are five
 falls, numerous fine lakes, and pretty islands, with a pleasing country
 abounding in game and fish, favorable for settlement, were it not for the
 wars which the savages carry on with each other.
 _La Mer Douce_ is a very large lake, containing a countless number of
 islands. It is very deep, and abounds in fish of all varieties and of
 extraordinary size, which are taken at different times and seasons, as in
 the great sea. The southern shore is much pleasanter than the northern,
 where there are many rocks and great quantities of caribous.
 _Le Lac des Bisserenis_ is very beautiful, some twenty-five leagues in
 circuit, and containing numerous islands covered with woods and meadows.
 The savages encamp here, in order to catch in the river sturgeon, pike, and
 carp, which are excellent and of very great size, and taken in large
 numbers. Game is also abundant, although the country is not particularly
 attractive, it being for the most part rocky.
 [NOTE.--The following are marked on the map as places where the French have
 had settlements: 1. Grand Cibou; 2. Cap Naigre; 3. Port du Cap Fourchu; 4.
 Port Royal; 5. St. Croix; 6. Isle des Monts Deserts; 7. Port de Miscou; 8.
 Tadoussac; 9. Quebec; 10. St. Croix, near Quebec.]
 1. It is to be observed that some of the letters and figures are not found
    on the map. Among the rest, the letter A is wanting. It is impossible of
    course to tell with certainty to what it refers, particularly as the
    places referred to do not occur in consecutive order. The Abbé
    Laverdière thinks this letter points to the bay of Boston or what we
    commonly call Massachusetts Bay, or to the Bay of all Isles as laid down
    by Champlain on the eastern coast of Nova Scotia.
 2. On the southern coast of Newfoundland, now known as _Placentia Bay_.
 3. Point Levi, opposite Quebec.
 4. The letter G is wanting, but the reference is plainly to the Straits of
    Belle Isle, as may be seen by reference to the map.
 5. This island was somewhere between Mount Desert and Jonesport; not
    unlikely it was that now known as Petit Manan. It was named after
    Sasanou, chief of the River Kennebec. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 58.
 6. The underestimate is so great, that it is probable that the author
    intended to say that the length of the island is eight or nine leagues.
 7. The Boyer, east of Quebec. It appears to have been named after the
    President Jeannin. _Vide antea_, p.112.
 8. A river east of the Island of Orleans now called Rivière du Sud.
 9. N is wanting.
 10. A harbor at the north-eastern extremity of the island of Campobello.
     _Vide_ Vol II. p. 100.
 11. Q is wanting. The reference is perhaps to the islands in Penobscot Bay.
 12. Lac de Soissons So named after Charles de Bourbon, Count de Soissons, a
     Viceroy of New France in 1612. _Vide antea_, p 112. Now known as the
     Lake of Two Mountains.
 13. A bay at the mouth of a river of this name now called St. Paul's Bay,
     near the Isle aux Coudres. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 305.
 14. _Vide antea_, note 241.
 15. An island in the River St Lawrence west of Tadoussac, still called Hare
     Island. _Vide antea_, note 148.
 16. Figure 2 is not found on the map, and it is difficult to identify the
     place referred to.
 17. Bluets, _Vaccinium Canadense_, the Canada blueberry. Champlain says it
     is a small fruit very good for eating. _Vide_ Quebec ed. Voyage of
     1615, p. 509.
 18. _Vide_ Vol. II. p. 176.
 19. For _Lac S. Joseph_, read Lac S. Charles.
 20. Champlain here calls the Chaudière the River of the Etechemins,
     notwithstanding he had before given the name to that now known as the
     St. Croix. _Vide_ Vol. II. pp. 30, 47, 60. There is still a little east
     of the Chaudière a river now known as the Etechemin; but the channel of
     the Chaudière would be the course which the Indians would naturally
     take to reach the head-waters of the Kennebec, where dwelt the
 21. River Verte, entering the St. Lawrence on the south of Green Island,
     opposite to Tadoussac.
 22. Green Island.
 23. Jacques Cartier River.
 24. Near the Batiscan.
 25. Nicolet. _Vide_ Laverdière's note, Quebec ed. Vol. III. p. 328.
 26. River St. Francis.
 27. Rivière du Loup.
 28. River Richelieu.
 29. This number is wanting.
 30. The Falls of St Louis, above Montreal. The figures are wanting.
 31. One of the small rivers between Cobequid Bay and Cumberland Strait.
 32. Moose Hunting, on the west of Gaspé.
 33. Argentenay.--_Laverdière_.
 34. Champlain had not been in this region, and consequently obtained his
     information from the savages. There is no such lake as he represents on
     his map, and this island producing pure copper may have been Isle
     Royale, in Lake Superior.
 35. The Falls of St. Mary.
 36. York River.
 37. The Ristigouche.
 38. Now called North Point.
 39. Probably Gold River, flowing into Mahone Bay.
 40. Still called Port La Tour.
 41. Halifax Harbor. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 266.
 42. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 192.
 43. Now Cape Chignecto, in the Bay of Fundy.
 44. Advocates' Harbor.
 45. Richmond Island _Vide_ note 42 Vol. I. and note 123 Vol. II. of this
 46. The Isles of Shoals. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 142.
 47. Boston Bay.
 48. Martha's Vineyard _Vide_ Vol. II. note 227.
 49. Merrimac Bay, as it may be appropriately called stretching from Little
     Boar's Head to Cape Anne.
 50. These islands appear to be in Casco Bay.
 51. The figures are not on the map. The reference is to the Scoudic,
     commonly known as the River St Croix.
 52. There is probably a typographical error in the figures. The passage
     should read "66 or 67 years ago."
 53. Now Old Point Comfort.
 54. Jamestown, Virginia.
 55. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 95.
 56. This should read 1609. _Vide_ Vol. II. note 348.
 57. Lake George _Vide antea_, note 63. p. 93.
 58. This cape still bears the same name.
 59. This number is wanting.
 60. This river comes from the Lake of Two Mountains, is a branch of the
     Ottawa separating the Island of Montreal from the Isle Jésus and flows
     into the main channel of the Ottawa two or three miles before it
     reaches the eastern end of the Island of Montreal.
 61. The Chaudière Falls are near the site of the city of Ottawa. _Vide
     antea_, p. 120.
 62. Muskrat Lake.
 63. This number is wanting on the map. Muscrat Lake is one of this
     succession of lakes, which extends easterly towards the Ottawa.
 64. Allumette Island, in the River Ottawa, about eighty-five miles above
     the capital of the Dominion of Canada.
 65. That part of the River Ottawa which, after its bifurcation, sweeps
     around and forms the northern boundary of Allumette Island.
 66. The Ottawa beyond its junction with the Matawan.
 67. French River.
 68. _Vide antea_, note 83, p. 130.
 69. Plainly Lake St. Louis, now the Ontario, and not the Falls of St Louis.
     The reference is here to Niagara Falls.
 70. The River Rideau.
 71. The River Trent discharges into the Bay of Quinte, an arm of Lake
     Ontario or Lac St Louis.
 72. On the borders of Lake Ontario in the State of New York.
 73. The head-waters of the Bay of Fundy.
 74. The River Ottawa, here referred to, extends nearly to Lake Nipissing,
     here spoken of as the lake of the _Bissèreni_.
 75. The Canada blueberry, Vaccanium Canadense. The aborigines of New
     England were accustomed to dry the blueberry for winter's use. _Vide
     Josselyn's Rarities_, Tuckerman's ed., Boston, 1865, p. 113.
 76. This reference is to the Antouoronons, as given on the map.
 [Seal Inscription: In Memory of Thomas Prince]
 _Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General
 Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows_:
 SECTION I. John Ward Dean, J. Wingate Thornton, Edmund F. Slafter, and
 Charles W. Tuttle, their associates and successors, are made a corporation
 by the name of the PRINCE SOCIETY, for the purpose of preserving and
 extending the knowledge of American History, by editing and printing such
 manuscripts, rare tracts, and volumes as are mostly confined in their use
 to historical students and public libraries.
 SECTION 2. Said corporation may hold real and personal estate to an amount
 not exceeding thirty thousand dollars.
 SECTION 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage.
 Approved March 18, 1874.
        *       *       *       *       *
 NOTE.--The Prince Society was organized on the 25th of May, 1858. What was
 undertaken as an experiment has proved successful. This ACT OF
 INCORPORATION has been obtained to enable the Society better to fulfil its
 object, in its expanding growth.
 ARTICLE I.--This Society Shall be called THE PRINCE SOCIETY; and it Shall
 have for its object the publication of rare works, in print or manuscript,
 relating to America.
 ARTICLE II--The officers of the Society shall be a President, four
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 All members shall be entitled to and shall accept the volumes printed by
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 ARTICLE V.--On the anniversary of the birth of the Rev. Thomas
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 _Corresponding Secretary_.
 _Recording Secretary_.
 The Hon. Charles Francis Adams, LL.D.           Boston, Mass.
 Samuel Agnew, Esq.                              Philadelphia, Pa.
 Thomas Coffin Amory, A.M.                       Boston, Mass.
 William Sumner Appleton, A.M.                   Boston, Mass.
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 Samuel Eliot, LL.D.                             Boston, Mass.
 Alfred Langdon Elwyn, M.D.                      Philadelphia, Pa.
 James Emott, Esq.                               New York, N.Y.
 The Hon. William M. Evarts, LL.D.               New York, N.Y.
 Joseph Story Fay, Esq.                          Woods Holl, Mass.
 John S. H. Fogg, M.D.                           Boston, Mass.
 The Rev. Henry W. Foote, A.M.                   Boston, Mass.
 Samuel P. Fowler, Esq.                          Danvers, Mass.
 James E. Gale, Esq.                             Haverhill, Mass.
 Marcus D. Gilman, Esq.                          Montpelier, Vt.
 The Hon. John E. Godfrey                        Bangor, Me.
 Abner C. Goodell, Jr., A.M.                     Salem, Mass.
 Elbridge H. Goss, Esq.                          Boston, Mass.
 The Hon. Chief Justice Horace Gray, L.L.D.      Boston, Mass.
 William W. Greenough, A.B.                      Boston, Mass.
 Isaac J. Greenwood, A.M.                        New York, N.Y.
 Charles H. Guild, Esq.                          Somerville, Mass.
 The Hon. Robert S. Hale, LL.D.                  Elizabethtown, N.Y.
 C. Fiske Harris, A.M.                           Providence, R.I.
 David Greene Haskins, Jr., A.M.                 Cambraidge, Mass.
 The Hon. Francis B. Hayes, A.M.                 Boston, Mass.
 Thomas Wentworth Higginson, A.M.                Cambraidge, Mass.
 W. Scott Hill, M.D.                             Augusta, Me.
 James F. Hunnewell, Esq.                        Charlestown, Mass.
 Theodore Irwin, Esq.                            Oswego, N.Y.
 The Hon. Clark Jillson                          Worcester, Mass.
 Mr. Sawyer Junior                               Nashua, N.H.
 George Lamb, Esq.                               Boston, Mass.
 Edward F. de Lancey, Esq.                       New York, N.Y.
 William B. Lapham, M.D.                         Augusta, Me.
 Henry Lee, A.M.                                 Boston, Mass.
 John A. Lewis, Esq.                             Boston, Mass.
 Orsamus H. Marshall, Esq.                       Buffalo, N.Y.
 William T. R. Marvin, A.M.                      Boston, Mass.
 William F. Matchett, Esq.                       Boston, Mass.
 Frederic W. G. May, Esq.                        Boston, Mass.
 The Rev. James H. Means, D.D.                   Boston, Mass.
 George H. Moore, LL.D.                          New York, N.Y.
 The Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL.D.                 Brooklyn, N.Y.
 The Rev. James De Normandie, A.M.               Portsmouth, N.H.
 The Hon. James W. North.                        Augusta, Me.
 Prof. Charles E. Norton, A.M.                   Cambraidge, Mass.
 John H. Osborne, Esq.                           Auburn, N.Y.
 George T. Paine, Esq.                           Providence, R.I.
 The Hon. John Gorham Palfrey, LL.D.             Cambraidge, Mass.
 Daniel Parish, Jr., Esq.                        New York, N. Y.
 Francis Parkman, LL.D.                          Boston, Mass.
 Augustus T. Perkins, A.M.                       Boston, Mass.
 The Rt. Rev. William Stevens Perry, D.D., LL.D. Davenport, Iowa.
 William Frederic Poole, A.M.                    Chicago, Ill.
 George Prince, Esq.                             Bath, Me.
 Capt. William Prince, U.S.A.                    New Orleans, La.
 Samuel S. Purple, M.D.                          New York, N.Y.
 The Hon. John Phelps Futnam, A.M.               Boston, Mass.
 Edward Ashton Rollins, A.M.                     Philadelphia, Pa.
 The Hon. Mark Skinner                           Chicago, Ill.
 The Rev. Carlos Slafter, A.M.                   Dedham, Mass.
 The Rev. Edmund F. Slafter, A.M.                Boston, Mass.
 Charles C. Smith, Esq.                          Boston, Mass.
 Samuel T. Snow, Esq.                            Boston, Mass.
 Oliver Bliss Stebbins, Esq.                     Boston, Mass.
 George Stevens, Esq.                            Lowell, Mass.
 The Hon. Edwin W. Stoughton.                    New York, N.Y.
 William B. Trask, Esq.                          Boston, Mass.
 The Hon. William H. Tuthill.                    Tipton, Iowa.
 Charles W. Tuttle, Ph.D.                        Boston, Mass.
 The Rev. Alexander Hamilton Vinton, D.D.        Pomfret, Ct.
 Joseph B. Walker, A.M.                          Concord, N.H.
 William Henry Wardwell, Esq.                    Boston, Mass.
 Miss Rachel Wetherill                           Philadelphia, Pa.
 Henry Wheatland, A.M., M.D.                     Salem, Mass.
 John Gardner White, A.M.                        Cambraidge, Mass.
 William Adee Whitehead, A.M.                    Newark, N.J.
 William H. Whitmore, A.M.                       Boston, Mass.
 Henry Austin Whitney, A.M.                      Boston, Mass.
 The Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Ph.D.              Boston, Mass.
 Henry Winsor, Esq.                              Philadelphia, Pa.
 The Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D.              Boston, Mass.
 Charles Levi Woodbury, Esq.                     Boston, Mass.
 Ashbel Woodward, M.D.                           Franklin, Ct.
 J. Otis Woodward, Esq.                          Albany, N.Y.
 American Antiquarian Society                    Worcester, Mass.
 Amherst College Library                         Amherst, Mass.
 Astor Library                                   New York, N.Y.
 Boston Athenaeum                                Boston, Mass.
 Boston Library Society                          Boston, Mass.
 British Museum                                  London, Eng.
 Concord Public Library                          Concord, Mass.
 Eben Dale Sutton Reference Library              Peabody, Mass.
 Free Public Library                             Worcester, Mass.
 Grosvenor Library                               Buffalo, N.Y.
 Harvard College Library                         Cambraidge, Mass.
 Historical Society of Pennfylvania              Philadelphia, Pa.
 Library Company of Philadelphia                 Philadelphia, Pa.
 Library of Parliament                           Ottawa, Canada.
 Library of the State Department                 Washington, D.C.
 Long Island Historical Society                  Brooklyn, N.Y.
 Maine Historical Society                        Brunswick, Me.
 Maryland Historical Society                     Baltimore, Md.
 Massachusetts Historical Society                Boston, Mass.
 Mercantile Library                              New York, N.Y.
 Minnesota Historical Society                    St. Paul, Minn.
 Newburyport Public Library, Peabody Fund        Newburyport, Mass.
 New England Historic Genealogical Society       Boston, Mass.
 Newton Free Library                             Newton, Mass.
 New York Society Library                        New York, N.Y.
 Plymouth Public Library                         Plymouth, Mass.
 Portsmouth Athenaeum                            Portsmouth, N.H.
 Public Library of the City of Boston            Boston, Mass.
 Redwood Library                                 Newport, R.I.
 State Library of Massachusetts                  Boston, Mass.
 State Library of New York                       Albany, N.Y.
 State Library of Rhode Island                   Providence, R.I.
 State Library of Vermont                        Montpelier, Vt.
 Williams College Library                        Williamstown, Mass.
 Yale College Library 

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