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The plains Indians were late arrivals in the sense that their occupancy of the prairies did not become year round until after the arrival of the horse. The conditions during winter were sometimes so bad that without the horse they were to vulnerable to the elements. They were however the true hunters of the buffalo and before the romantic versions of hunting them on horse were realized they used other in genius methods such as fire traps and buffalo jumps (off cliffs).
Native Maps




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Reference: www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/eras.html